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T? <1 

Theodore Presser Co., Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa. 

for Child Pianists 

.ptaliW P “ e ‘ h 

•ollections makes them children and the 

nd the covers are just as delightful. 


Little Albums 

of Children 

Send for our interesting 
“Catalogue of Juvenile 
Musical Publications 

This catalogue ha. many helpful 

wot k 8 d«C i rfed._Thck.nder t gc 9tK 

Pearls of Instruction in L 

The very appearance of these charming 
little musical gems beh 


Birthday Jewels 

Old Rhymes with New Tunes 

The World of Music 



APRIL 1923 Page 219 


New Music 

Piano Solos and Duets, Vocal Solos, Sacred and Secular, 
Vocal Duets, Violin and Piano Numbers, 


Theodore Presser Co. SKU Philadelphia, Pa. 

SPAULDING EASY ALBUM £ r Td l e l I£K %£ ] S 


Etude Prize Contest 



$1,250.00 in Prizes 



TAKE pleasure in making the following offer 
our Etude Prize Contest, being 
of the real value of a contest of this 
der interest in composition and of 
of composers. In this contest all 
l assure the contestan 



S1 * F ° r Koines 

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Address LYNN B. DANA, President 


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An eminent faculty of 60 artists offers to 
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Professional Directory 

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Training School lor Supemoor. ol Mu.ic 

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APRIL, 1923 Single Copies 25 Cents VOL. XLI, No. 4 

Home-Made Music Necessary 

The scrivener sat in his stall by the highway. A youth 
came to him and said, “Prithee, sir, I would that you should 
write me a love letter to my lady. Here is tuppence for 
your skill.” 

“What would you say?” quoth the man of letters. 

“Tell her that I love her more than anything,” answered 
the gallant. The scrivener took his quill and wrote: 

Fairest Lady: E’en as the swn shines on all the 
firmament, e’en as fair Luma embraces all the world at 
eve, so would I bring my love to you. Adonis never 
knew the thrill with which I send this greeting. May 
your every hour be blessed with rapture imtil we 
meet again. 

Joyfully the swain took his letter and went his way, won¬ 
dering at the skill of the learned 
man who could write it so that his 
sweetheart could easily employ 
someone to read it to her. 

Now, we may buy our music 
ready-made or make it ourselves. 

There is a very great joy in listen¬ 
ing to music made by others. What 
with the art of Paderewski, Hof¬ 
mann, Galli-Curci, Grainger, Godow- 
sky, Bauer, Kreisler, Ganz, Werren- 
rath, Farrar, Huberman, Tiffany, 

Gogorza, Strauss, Chase, Zimbalist, 

Elman, Oscar Seagle, Julia Culp, 

Stokowski, Sousa, Ruffo and count¬ 
less others who have recorded their 
interpretations for various lands of 
sound-reproducing machines, it is 
now possible for people of very mod¬ 
erate incomes to bring to their 
homes the finest kind of music as 
performed by masters of the art. 

Every musical home ought to pos¬ 
sess the advantage of owning these 
recordings. Prom the beginning of 
the artistic development of music¬ 
recording apparatus, The Etude 
has enthusiastically exploited its 
possibilities. We are more than ever 
convinced that these instruments 
have enormously increased the gen¬ 
eral interest in music and have been a factor in inducing thou¬ 
sands to learn to play and sing. 

At the same time, the musically inclined person should know 
that the higher enjoyment of his records, and of music as a 
whole, cannot be obtained in any other way than through the 
diligent study of music, whether this is done as an amateur or 
otherwise. We have passed the day of the scrivener, when we 
had to employ someone to read to us or to write for us. The 
ability to read and to write enhances our love for the drama a 
thousandfold. In just such manner does a knowledge of music— 
that is, the ability to play or to sing with proficiency and with 
familiarity with the foundations of the art—increase one’s 
enjoyment of music in every form. If you want to get the best 
fun out of music, learn music. Anyone who has gone through 
the experience will tell you why. Let’s have more and more 
.home-made music. Music is the inspiration of every whole¬ 
some home group the world over. 

Rewarding the Real Leaders 

Because our general field is education, and because this 
injustice affects teachers of music as well as other pedagogues, 
we feel that the discussion deserves space in The Etude. 

Every sensible person admits that the safety, prosperity 
and happiness of a State depends upon the character, brains 
and industry of its citizens. The makers of citizens from the 
raw material of infancy are the teachers, the educators. This is 
becoming more and more true every year. Recent school admin¬ 
istration methods have gloriously absorbed music as a necessary 
part of the educational scheme. 

Admitting the position of the teacher to be the most 
important among all public servants, it seems absurd to read in 
the Analysis of the Interchurch World Movement on the Great 
Steel Strike that the average wage for teachers throughout the 
country is at a rate of just about 
one-half that paid the what are 
classed as common laborers in the 
steel industry. The shame of it! 
Oh, the shame of it! 

The remedy for strikes and all 
social troubles lies in education in 
our schools (including character 
building with the inspiring back¬ 
ground of music). This education 
is now in the hands of men and 
women who are the logical strike¬ 
breakers for strikes of the future. 
With the right understanding, with 
harmony and justice there can be 
no strikes. Labor and capital both 
should clamor to see that the wage 
of teachers is raised so that the pro¬ 
fession will command the very best 
citizens, and that they shall be paid 
liberally for their services. Enter¬ 
prise, initiative, trained industry, 
ethical ideas, patriotism, art, prog¬ 
ress, are all now, in a very splendid 
way, the responsibility of the 

Millions of dollars are lost every 
year in strikes and social eruptions. 
Why? Because we are forgetting 
that the leaders of the people are 
the educators in the home, school and 
pulpit. Pauperize the real leaders and the only result is the 
rule of the mob. Let us pay our leaders handsomely! 

We would feel that we were neglecting one of the greatest 
privileges and duties of our publication if we did not now and 
then claim our share in helping to mould public opinion to 
a higher appreciation of the teacher’s worth. Won’t you 
join with us in emphasizing this stand by persuading aS manv 
of your friends as possible to spread the ideal? 

Public opinion, moulded by just such cultured, idealistic 
people as those who read The Etude, will help immensely. 
Your personal effort in urging this among your own friends 
will help immensely. The main thing is to keep on urging it 

every day. • _ 

The teacher—whether mother, priest or schoolmaster—is 
the real maker of history; rulers, statesmen and soldiers do but 
work out the possibilities of co-operation or conflict the teacher 
creates.—H. G. Wells. 


America’s Favorite Hymn 


Arranged as a Solo 
(In the Music Section of this Issue) 

As Sung by 

Mme. Amelita Galli-Curci 

This beautiful arrangement was made by MR. 
HOMER SAMUELS for his wife, Mme. Amelita 
Galli-Curci, in response to countless requests to 
include this famous hymn in their concert pro¬ 
grams. The arrangement appears for the first 
time 'in print in this issue of THE ETUDE 
MUSIC MAGAZINE. The arrangement is 
admirable for both concert and church use. THE 
ETUDE hymn census published elsewhere in this 
issue indicates “ABIDE WITH ME’’ as Amer¬ 
ica’s Favorite Hymn. 

Music and Telepathy 

We have never talked with a psychological expert who was 
willing to admit that what is known as telepathy, or the trans¬ 
mission of unspoken thought from individual to individual at a 
distance without some such physical means as the telephone oi 
the radio, is demonstrable. All these experts have insisted that 
such reported instances of telepathy as one constantly hears are 
merely coincidences. Gabriel Bernhard, in the Paris Le Cour- 
rier Musical, however, takes a very different viewpoint. 

After reciting the attitude of Richet, Heuze, Branly, Tuf- • 
ficr, Janet and other French metaphysical savants and members 
of the Academy of Sciences, he points out that some of these 
scientists are of the mind that telepathy is identical with some 
physical phenomenon not dissimilar to electricity as employed 
in wireless telegraphy. As far as we are concerned, this is 
purely conjecture, as we do not know or believe that it has been 
demonstrated creditably through physical instruments. 

Everyone hears of “hunches” or “premonitions,” and some 
of us have had startling examples in our own experience; but, 
until we can work out occult wireless when we want to work it, 
we must put all these things down to coincidence. 

The writer in Le Courrier Musical, however, insists that 
there is in music a wonderful field for telepathic experimenta¬ 
tion. He tells us that there is an unquestioned telepathic bond 
between the conductor and his orchestra. He suggests that 
the experiment of having the conductor lead in the dark at times 
will demonstrate it. We have heard the Sousa Band play 
through an entire number in 'its program when the electric 
lights went out and the great bandmaster was invisible. The 
effect was excellent. But was this not due to years of previous 
training? On the other hand, the Sutro Sisters, in their won¬ 
derful two-piano playing, sit back-to-back and revel in compli¬ 
cated rhythms, crescendos and nuances which would seem to 
indicate something like telepathy. The subject is an interesting 
one, but one of which we know so little that we shall not attempt 
to give the impression of anything like sophistication. 

Art to be beautiful must have form. Sir Charles Villiers 
Stanford says: “It is a law of nature that no art can be form¬ 
less without being; also monstrous. What is true of nature ztnll 
always be true of its idealisation.” 

Then and Now 

If you want to realize how the musician’s place in the social 
scheme has arisen, just read this part of a letter which Mozart 
wrote to 1 the archbishop, asking his ruler to kindly fire him so 
that he could earn a living. 

“ * * * I am bound before God in my conscience, with 

all my power to be grateful to my father—who has unweariedly 
devoted all his time to my education—to lighten for him the 
burden and now for myself, and afterwards for my sister, for 
I should be sorry that she had spent so many hours at the 
harpsichord without making a profitable use of them. With 
your Grace’s leave, therefore, I most humbly pray your Grace 
to dismiss me from your service, for I am anxious to take 
advantage of the approaching months. Your Grace will not 
take unfavorably this most humble prayer, since three years 
ago your Grace, when I begged permission to travel to Vienna, 
was graciously pleased to declare that I had nothing else to 
hope for, and should do better to seek my fortune elsewhere. I 
thank your Grace in deepest humility for all great favors 
received; and with the flattering hope of being able to serve 
your Grace in my manhood with more approval, I commend 
myself to your Grace’s continued favor and goodness.” 

After all this palaver the archbishop graciously consented 
to discharge the greatest musician of his age. How different 
would be the fate of Mozart now. Managers would be fighting 
to make contracts with the boy who was virtually obliged to 
go upon a kind of begging tour in order to get a start. He 
would receive offers of thousands of dollars instead of a few 
pennies or shillings. He would ride in luxurious Pullman cars, 
instead of bumping diligences, he would live in hotels far more 
palatial than anything that ever entered the archbishop’s 

From Trovatore to Boris 

Moussorgskv s “Boris 

When one hears a away f r0 »i the “Trovatore” 

Godounoff,” it seemsi so ma y Moussorgsky in his 

of Verdi that it is difficult to as k ; nd of militarv 

youth was described by one - k and spnn , his feet small 

fop with “well-fitting uni > | hed and pomaded, his hands 
and shapely, his hair carefufly „ is mannel , 

»eU .“ngly .„<! he l„vi,h 

were exceedingly lefin , P ^ t touch of conceit, but 
with his French p ‘ ; d ood breeding remained con- 
not too much; his educatmn ^ He would sit at 

spicuous; the ladies were tures play portions of Trovatore 

<CHa Wa^t a cafeTatavism which carried Moussorgsky from 
the artificial glamor of the Muscovite court society to the dis¬ 
sipation which accompanied his later years and the manifesta¬ 
tion of the peasant atmosphere in Ins naturalistic mu.ic. 

The picture we know best of Moussorgsky was painted 
shortly before his death (by Repin), when Moussorgsky had 
been through the agonies of great poverty, which he had 
attempted to drown in vodka. The smooth, polished parlor 
pianist, strumming away at arrangements of Verdi operas had 
completely vanished. Instead was a realistic genius, an a mm 
clast, whose idea of setting words to music was that of follow la¬ 
the natural inflections of language. It was an enormous h ap 
from the trite and inconsequential Rondos of Herz, whirl. 
Moussorgsky played as a young man, to the huge musical can 
vases of the Master’s later years of which Debussy said, “It 
resembles the art of the enquiring primitive man, who discovers 
mnEip cfpm tw stem omided onlv bv his feehmrs.” 

Francesco Berger, London pedagogue and writer, wlm,r 
contributions to The Etude always bring an atmosphere <>f 
youth and sprightliness to our pages which never betrays hi, 
eighty-seven years, makes a plea in the London Musical Record 
for “less difficulty” in pianoforte pieces. After all, difficult v 
has very little to do with sheer beauty. Traumerci is just a, 
complete and just as beautiful, in its way, as the Carnarol. 
Berger says: “I am not advocating the total abolition of all 
difficulty, or a return to the simplicity of Haydn and Diubclh. 
But surely there is an immense gap between music of Grach A 
and that of Grade Z. Pieces which completely absorb the at ten 
tion of the average player by their demand on his technic l.-.-nr 
him little freedom to attend to other matters. He is trending 
the tread-mill of toil, instead of strolling happily through lla- 
scented groves of musical imagination. 

“The question of difficulty resolves itself into this: What 
is the ultimate object of all music? Is it to astonish, to bewilder, 
to make our hair stand on end? If so, the performance of it 
ranks on the same low level as that of the acrobat who walk, 
across the stage on his hands, with his head protruding between 
Ins legs, masticating glass bottles. But if music is intended 
to serve a higher mission, and that mission be to supply loftv 
intellectual enjoyment and to evoke thoughts, sentiments and 
emotions which even the choicest language is inadequate to 

some ’pieces misLTS lfe£^ 

much bad piano plavinl M |j has ‘ x P 0Sed the kernel of 

of acquired prowess Thu tl ' """ a " "' ,int to make show 
a piece that is techrica%j^ 'Zfi* ^ ^ I***™ 
well within his grasp. F ar be Her / T* h,m insteml ,,f onC 
an exhibition of musical tic-lit ^ "“Nm " ,US,C t1liln to m,lkc 
hearer apprehensive rather tlm,i d^ij " ^ ,h " 

do justice to the mZicdV^enuton C °" 1d not hcf)in 10 

m New York City in one dear”' tz mmandm S serious attention 
politan newspaper critic. 1 U ' S commculs a noted metro- 


APEIL 1923 Page 223 

New Lights on the Art of the Piano 

An Interview with the Master Composer and Pianist 


e^piam) 1 since the time of 
ssible exception of Edvard 

our artistic advance and our artistic needs ^mnanlnoff 

Secured Expressly for The Etude 

■1-1 1 •. Alexander Siloti, the 

Conservatorium, with his cousin^ time t00 k lip 

and technical skui. iney are l ;“ a n \A » vnw/from 

brilliance and lofty idealism that one would expect irom 
this scion of a noble Russian family. He has written three 
one act operas, several symphonic^ 

In l919 S ’TH; d ETy^ 
pSbUshef a Rachmaninoff number (October) presenHng 
information about this master and his works, otherwise 
unobtainable in the English language. The following inter- 
. .. it— oirmitip'inf wp hnvp. bad the honor 

Is the Art of Playing the Piano Advancing ? 

“The art of playing the piano has not only not reached 
its limits, but it is very questionable whether the standards 
of attainment at the keyboard are anything like as high 
to-day as they were in the days of Anton Rubinstein, to 
my mind these performances transcended- all who have 
appeared since their time. Indeed, I might be so extrava¬ 
gant as to assert that Anton Rubinstein played twice as 
well as any who are playing to-day. Rubinstein was a 
pianistic marvel born to master the instrument, to glorify 
it to devour it, as it were. Rubinstein had something 
more than technic. He embraced all the qualities that a 
master of the keyboard should have. Notwithstanding the 
difficulty of Chopin and Liszt compositions, they are all 
pianistic. There are two- kinds of difficulties : Difficulties 
which exist because the composer does not recognize the 
nature of the piano and makes his works uncomfortable 
for the performer,, with no gain whatever in pianistic 
effect, and the difficulties which are pianistic, that is, 
always playable, always in the genre of the instrument. 

“Of course all composers have their admirers, their 
followers. Often the admirers are such because of their 
personal inclinations. They are ignorant of what consti¬ 
tutes real beauty in piano composition and piano playing. 
They learn that it is fashionable to admire certain phases 
of what is termed futurism. They like the pose of being 
"modern,” “up-to-date,” and they affect to like the works 
that no human being with a rational mind could possibly 
enjoy. Such a public rarely thinks for itself; it is much 
more comfortable for them to accept a fashion which 
others applaud, even if that fashion is altogether hideous. 
Human nature is odd in this respect. Time, however, 
decides between the permanent and the artificial and 
inevitably preserves the good, .the true and the beautiful. 

The Lure of the Piano 

“The piano is the most obvious instrument and for that 
reason will always be the one which has the greatest 
appeal to the amateur. It is the door to musical litera¬ 
ture because of its command of-bass, treble and the other 
inner voices. It is simply indispensable in music because 
of this. It is not nearly so difficult as the violin, because 
the tones are already made at the keyboard and the player 
does not have to go through the experience of finding 
them as on a violin. , 

“It is true that the piano does not develop the sense 
of hearing as does an instrument on which the student 
is expected to make his own tones; but for the most 
part it is decidedly the best instrument for the beginner. 
Musical talents come into the world with marked in¬ 
clinations toward certain instruments. If a great genius 
is discovered with inclinations toward the violin, this 
should be encouraged. 

“The training of the ear may probably be best devel¬ 
oped through singing. In Russia, in the Government 
schools, this is one of the compulsory studies. The pupil 
must go through his classes in solfeggio, and it is not 
regarded as a matter of secondary interest. He is not 
taught solfeggio with the idea of making him a singer, 
but with the thought that unless he learns to hear his 
music, and understands the intervals, his playing and 
singing can never be more than merely mechanical. The 
singing improves the rhythm. , 

“The advantage of the Government school is that, 
unless the student manifests real talent, he is not per¬ 
mitted to continue. He may go to a private school if he 
chooses, but the State did not undertake to give him a 
musical training unless it was convinced that music was 
the career for which he was best fitted. In America, 
practically all the schools are private. The pupil is re¬ 
garded as a business asset to be retained and taught as 
long as a modicum of talent warrants his continuance. 

Don’t Be Afraid of Technic 

“One hears a great deal about the danger of too much 
technic in America, which seems absurd. To my mind 


the first thing a pupil should seek is to acquire as much 
technic as he can possibly comprehend. This is the rea¬ 
son why it is necessary to begin at a very early age. A 
technic must be built, just as a house must be built, ft 
takes years to do this. There are no real short cuts. The 
muscles grow in power and dexterity, through a course 
of years of daily hard work. When one begins late m 
life, it is possible, of course, to learn to play,.often m a 
very gratifying manner; but it is very rare that it. is 
possible to acquire a huge technic which is really a mix¬ 
ture of hard practice and years. I know of no pianist 
who began late in life to study the instrument who ever 
acquired a great technic. Show me an exception. Make 
your start at six or seven, not nineteen or twenty, if you 
hope to get the technic which every public artist must 
possess. This should not discourage those who, starting 
later in life, hope to play the instrument well. They may 
play it well, but they will never have the virtuoso technic 
which the public of to-day demands. Strangely enough, 
however, if the hand and mind-are trained in youth, it is 
possible after a lapse of years, to start to build again and 
produce very unusual results. The technic acquired m 
youth seems to remain as a kind of musical capital. 

’ “Personally, I am a great believer in scales and arpeg¬ 
gios. What is there to excel them? When you can play 
them well you can begin to study with the proper techni¬ 
cal background. . 

“Two hours daily is none too much to devote to technic 
until the hands and muscles receive that drilling and exer¬ 
cise which they must have for the great tasks.of perform¬ 
ing the masterpieces of the art. In Russia it is the aim 
of the best schooled teachers to accomplish as much of 
this as is compatible with the health of the child, as early 
as possible. In fact, by the time the student -reaches the 
first to the sixth classes he is through with most of it. 
When he reaches his sixth class, he is confronted with 
an examination before he is permitted to pass to the next 
grade. This technical examination has largely to do with 
scales, arpeggios and exercises. If he cannot pass this he 
' stops there until he can. That is how much Russia thinks 

of technic, and we have had the reputation of producing 
some astonishing technicians. 

A Determinative Examination 

“The examination given is of a nature that may interest 
some American students and teachers. At least the fol¬ 
lowing outline will show in part, how thorough it is. The 
pupil by this time is supposed to know his scales and his 
arpeggios, as well as the average child knows the multi¬ 
plication tables. In other words his knowledge and skill 
are expected to be ready at once. He is not supposed to 
hesitate to gather his wits. When the direction is given 
by the examiner he is expected to play the scale, or ar¬ 
peggio immediately as directed. 

“The student on coming into the examination room is 
told that he will be examined upon the scales and arpeg¬ 
gios centered, as it were, upon a given note, “A” for 
example. He does not know in advance what note he will 
be examined upon. First come the scales. The metro¬ 
nome is set and the pupil is directed to play eight notes 
to a beat, or any given number,.in any rhythm the exam¬ 
iner determines upon. First, he would possibly be asked 
to play the scale of A major, then that of A minor, in 
the different forms. Then he might be asked to play the 
scale of G major,.starting with A, then C major, then F 
major, then D major, then B flat, then E major; in fact 
any major or minor scale containing A. The examiner 
notes at once whether the student has the fingering of the 
scales at his finger tips, whether he employs the right 
fingers for each scale. It is comparatively simple to play 
the scales in a given key from octave to octave; but, 
when you think of it, they rarely appear in such form 
in actual compositions. Rather does one find a snatch of 
a scale here and there. Unless the student knows how 
to finger these snatches of scales with the approved 
fingering, his scale study is at fault. The main value of 
scale study is to acquaint the hand and the brain with the 
most adequate fingering so that when the playing emer¬ 
gency comes in a piece the hand will naturally spring to 
the right fingering. 

“A similar process is encountered in playing the arpeg¬ 
gios. A certain note is taken for examination purposes, 
let us say A again. The student is requested to play the 
arpeggio of the major triad on A, then the minor triad, 
and then the triad of which the note A is the major third 
(in this instance the triad would be that of F and the 
arpeggio would be played in the first inversion or 6 posi¬ 
tion. Next he might give the same triad with an aug¬ 
mented 5th, that is the triad F, A, Cl, but always start¬ 
ing the arpeggio with the letter A and with the correct 
fingering. He would next be asked for the 6/4 chord 
on A, that is the chord of which A is the fifth. This 
would be the chord D, FI, A; but the student plays it 
in the position of A D FI. Then would come the minor 
of the same chord A D F. The following list of chords, 
followed by the fingering of a few notes of the arpeggio 
shows what is intended. 

the etud e 

Page 22b APRIL 1928 

V, r *g 

7 . b*. 

;j! *n-J—r.>r r gjjgj 

“When the pupil is directed to play the six-five chord 
on A, his mind immediately reverts to the scales and 
arpeggios of the key of B flat, and the fingering for that 
key. It is by no means enough merely to be able to play 
a scale starting or ending with the key note. The pupil 
must know instantly what finger must go upon a pre¬ 
scribed note In the given scale. Thus A would have the 
following fingers in the scales as indicated: 

Scale of G — A has second finger in right hand. 

Scale of A — A has thumb in right hand. 

Scale of B flat — A has third finger in right hand. 

Scale of C — A has third finger in right hand. 

Scale of D — A has second finger in right hand. 

Scale of F—A has third finger in right hand. 

Scale of C — A has third finger in right hand. 

“To be able to start on a given note in any key, with 
the right finger and without hesitation, indicates that the 
student really knows the scales thoroughly and is not 
guessing at them. To do this he must know all the scales 
and must have thought about them as well as practiced 
them digitally at the keyboard. 

Liberating the Student from Technical Restrictions 

“Every Russian student in the earlier grades knows that 
to proceed he must master this. It stands as a barrier 
in his way until he surmounts it. It is only one of the 
phases of technical drill for which the conservatories of 
Russia were famous. Rapid later progress in the art of 
playing the piano is in a large measure due to the fact 
that one is not encumbered with the need for developing 
a technic which should have been mastered in youth. 

“But, you say, that is an examination in harmony as 
well as keyboard technic. Unquestionably, since both 
hang together. In learning the shales and arpeggios, one 
absorbs a ready knowledge of keys and chords which can 
hardly ever be gotten by paper examinations alone. The 
mind is trained to instantaneous thinking. What is the 
result? When a pupil takes up a composition of Bee¬ 
thoven, Schumann or Chopin, he does not have to waste 
hours studying special fingerings. He knows them almost 
intuitively and can give his attention to the more artistic 
phases of his work.” 

A Second Section of this Article will 
appear in THE ETUDE for next month. 
THE ETUDE has already secured confer¬ 
ences with a number of famous pianists, 
among whom may be noted Mr. Ernest 
Hutcheson, Mme. Guiomar Novaes and 
Mr. Frederick Lamond, all of whom have 
created new and sensational, interest in 
their performances this year. ’ 

Practical Practice 

By W. O. 

Talent is largely a desire and capacity for hard work. 
Worthy results are obtained only by quality put m o 
practice, and not by the number of hours at the keyboar . 

As in everything else, quality in practice counts, tor 
the mechanism of the hand must be made supple, strong, 
easy-running, and obedient to the slightest wish of the 

In order to develop such accessary condition, con¬ 
tinued attention must be devoted to scales, arpeggio play¬ 
ing, and to technical materials. The thumb action must 
become practically automatic, because the hand should 
not shift from one position to another until the thumb 
is actually over its key. It then acts as a pivot on 
which the hand may turn. 

Octave study of every possible kind, solid and broken 
chords and double intervals should receive daily attention 
by the advanced player. Thus the running mechanism 
of his equipment is constantly being adjusted arid 

In taking up a piece for study, it is well to look over 
the music without playing it, in order to form an idea 
of its contents and of its music'1 and technical features. 
After this survey the opening measures may be care¬ 
fully played, each hand alone. Always study without the 
pedal at first, in order to prevent “bleary” effects; and 
strive for a clear, beautiful tone. The importance of 
this analytical study can scarcely be over-emphasized. 

As soon as the difficulties in the separate hands have 
been overcome, the parts should be played together, 
always returning to separate study when uncertainty and 
unclearness are noticed. At this stage, too, attention 
should be directed to the construction of the phrases, etc., 
with a view to memorizing. If this is done, by the time 
the piece can be played with the hands together, in a 
clean, clear and rhythmically correct manner, the music 
will have “stuck in” and the piece be memorized. 


” Memorizing should begin at the beginning, phrase by 
phrase, not measure by measure, so that the player can 
appreciate the relationship of the different parts to th e 
whole. Apply the same common sense to the memo- 
rizing of music as with prose or verse, one thought at a 
time, and then uniting them. 

In putting together a composition so studied, attention 
should be directed to any mistakes or flaws occurring 
different passages. Work at these separately, until they 
go with absolute smoothness and reliability. This often 
requires a minute examination as to what causes the 
technical imperfection. Sometimes the failure to get 
even one or two notes with a comfortable fingering will 
spoil the effect of an entire passage. Ha\ing found the 
cause of the technical weakness, stop not till it ; s cor _ 
rected. If this is not done, sooner or later disaster will 
ensue when undertaking the piece lie fore hearers. 

A systematic fingering should be religiously followed 
The fingers then become accustomed to a . retain order 
and automatically go to their proper places without much 
mental stimulus to guide them. 

Technic must be made as perfect as possible, in order 
that the artistic wishes of the composer m pianist may¬ 
be carried out. If the technical features the compo¬ 
sition lie not mastered, it never can be 11 ! smoothly 

and beautifully. Aim at technical arsir .• and per¬ 
fection; then the “finishing touches" can l-< .filed. One 
is now free to add the shading, the cfi. , . to give 
attention to the use of the pedals, to con where to 
accelerate or slow down, in order to o the right 
emotional abandon, repose or brilliance I bis is the 
most fascinating work of all, and is when refinement 
and artistic taste of the performer mor- ws itself. 

The most subtle emotions, the most moving ,iotis, may- 

now be interpreted, because one has free from the 
thraldom of teclinic. 

A Teacher in Feathers 

By Herbert G. Patton 

About four o’clock one summer morning, I was lying 
half awake, when I was attracted by the singing of a 
robin. Being a lover of birds and an humble student of 
ornithology, I began to listen more intently and discovered 
that two were busy at one song. Soon I was astonished 
to discover one bird was giving the younger a music 

My interest became so intense that I. arose and, going 
to the open window I crouched low, and peeped over the 
window sill. There was the older robin on a neighbor’s 
chimney, but the young one was given the liberty of 
perching in the branches of a tree that almost overhung 
the chimney and the study of the song continued. 

Being a teacher of music, I was glad to be per¬ 
mitted to enter the class of this teacher in feathers; 
not even finding it obligatory to don a suit or comb my 
disheveled auburn locks. The teacher would sing a few 
notes of quite a lengthy carol, the young bird promptly 
attempting to imitate it. Sometimes the effort would 
be a success, and again almost foreign to the example set 
Did this feathered tutor stop to chide and find fault? 
Not at all. The pupil was given some liberty and after 
several repetitions began to improve and to grasp the 

entire song. I gained a lesson that beau- i 
morning and I feel sure a percentage m 
share in the benefit derived. 

I remember visiting a dear aunt in one : 
cities. Her daughter and a niece were 
lessons of a stern master of music. Tl. 
played by both of them several hours a . 
addition to finger drills and technical 
working on a short and beautiful classical 
other tune was permitted and so exacth. 
teacher that they seemed never to suit 
ments. This visit was a number of v 
whenever I hear that melody, written hv 
greatest composers, a feeling of revulsion 
me. They had played it to death and no w. 
of the young ladies took much pleasure m 

£oKr; ,m ' e ™-* h *- «•* »> 

Jlr Her time I stayed with a, 
SSr 1 - .excellent singer, who taught, 

would r m,t 3 pupil ,0 si "8 a half dozen „ 
would begin to scold and find fault. 

the great 
ing piano 
•nino was 
Both, in 

Indy. No 
was their 
ago, but 
ne of the 
imes over 
fi r neither 
r lessons 

who also 
'he would 
es till she 

“Anthems to Kill Time” 

By Eugene F. Marks 

Directors of church music, especially for the more 
liberal denominations, should use a keen eye in selectW 
their programs of music. 

Observation of common practices only emphasize this 
Exclusive of responses (which in most cases are ponions 
of hymns) most of these churches use two anthems 

Jon’tr r eS Tfi e , an ** interesting 

contrasts. They may alternate, grave with gay f as ? 

with slow or one introducing a solo with one entirelv 
choral. But how often directors overlook this oppor- 

Then, how seldom are anthems mad» t. 
with the prevailing thought of the day as deHve“v 
the minister. They seem, so often, to be just tossed ; 7 
the service to kill time. 1 1 ‘ d lnto 

When the minister gives the director no notice as 
hems 3 d Je i Ct e , day ’ and the selecti °n of the an 

byTn ^d^rL^tSst he 

The first (being more distant from’the’Lriron) 1 'stay]. 

SCCMld St ' r thC - In0 ""' an ' 

quiet in 35 If , d ' scourst > should lx subdued 
thinking. Above a lM? t0Ward * rcvcrence an<l 

a service in whirl, th’ ^ approprla,c an<1 heautif 
out harmoniously ?<LT' S,er a " d d ‘ rcctor have u ‘ 
illuminate a particu£Tfc£ a ' dmg ** ^ 
Certainly, to ^ 

which is to be s„n! rcsponse a verse of a 1 
inexcusable lack r!f e " t,re latcr in the service, shov 
obviated bv using other 6 * 01 ' 8 ** Th ' s easily coul 

are so many Txcenlm ^ tenaI - ?. Specia,,y " hc ” 

purpose. Thesi* * . Spences” published for 
hymns and, conseQuent^*"' 3 degrcc higher 
congregation. ** "* y are educational to the aw 

missionary 0 in S, !^ ld CVer view himself as a tcacht 
guide himself accordh^ ° f bettcr musir Hc sl 
teners to a higher Ill ng y ’. ever striving to lead hi; 
ffigher plane than normalcy. 


APRIL 1928 Page 225 

America’s Favorite Hymns 

iXJbbrb J ' r 1 ±1 ‘ , • 1 

Your pastor and your organist mil profit by this article. 

A Discussion RepresepUpg the Bailee Country Reuniting Iron, 32,000 Hymn TIUcs Sent to '■The BtnOe" 

“Abide with Me” Leads a Long List 

The reader's action is colled ,0 ,ke nee solo arrangement of "AUde Me£ as^g by Madame GdUi Card. This arrangement «w mad. by 
Mr. Homer Samuels and will be found in the Music Section of this issue. 

The results were received in the following order: 

Abide with Me.7301 

Nearer, My God, to Thee.5490 

Lead, Kindly Light.4161 

Rock of Ages. 3432 

Jesus, Lover of My Soul.2709 

Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty.. 1444 

Just as I am, Without One Plea.875 

Jesus, Saviour, Pilot Me.487 

My Faith Looks up to Thee.236 

All Hail the Power of Jesus’ Name. 220 

Between 150 and 200 
O Love That Wilt Not Let Me Go. 
How Firm a Foundation. 

In the Hour of Trial. 

What a Friend We Have in Jesus. 

I Need Thee Every Hour. 

Sweet Hour of Prayer. 

When I Survey the Wondroius Cross. 

Between 100 and 150 
He Leadeth Me. 

In the Cross of Christ I Glory. 

Jesus Calls Us, O’er the Tumult. 

Onward, Christian Soldiers. 

Guide Me, O Thou Great Jehovah. 
O Mother Dear, Jerusalem. 

Between 50 and 100 
Will There be any Stars? 

Come, Thou Almighty King. 
Softly Now the Light of Day. 

O Worship the King. 

Now the Day is Over. 

Come. Ye Disconsolate. 

One Sweetly Solemn Thought. 

Some months ago The Etude printed an Editorial 
based upon a hymn census taken a few years ago by 
Dr. W. H. McMaster, pastor of Embury Methodist 
Episcopal Church of Brooklyn, who now is President 
of Mount Union College, Ohio. From this census 
of the favorite hymns of that congregation the ten 
most liked hymns were selected and were reprinted in 
The Etude for February, 1922. These hymns were 1— 
Abide With Me, 2—We May Not Climb the Heavenly 
Steeps, 3—When I Survey the Wondrous Cross, 4—Rock 
of Ages, Cleft for Me, 5—Nearer my God to Thee, 6— 
Faith of Our Fathers, 7—In the Hour of Trial, 8— 
Jesus, Lover of My Soul, 9—0 Love That Will Not Let 
Me Go, 10—Jesus Calls us O’er the Tumult. 

The response to this editorial was enormous. Over 
32,000 titles were received. After this manifestation 
of interest The Etude invited noted men and women 
in all parts of the country to give their favorite hymns 
so that many different callings could be represented. 
All creeds, all sections, all kinds of people are repre¬ 
sented in this large census, in a manner which must 
be of great value to congregations electing to hold 
Hymn Services. In addition to the list and the com¬ 
ments from noted Americans there will also be found 
“The Romance of Hymns and Tunes” prepared by Mr. 

Edward Ellsworth Hipsher. 

Above is the list of hymns, with the ten favorites 
leading. The numbers after the hymns indicate the 
number of votes received in the 32,000 submitted. In 
nearly every list four hymns appeared: Abide with Me, 
Nearer, My God, to Thee; Rock of Ages; and Lead, 
Kindly Light. 


(President Emeritus, Harvard College 
I am much obliged to you for sending me the record 
of your inquiry into the favorite hymns of the readers 
of The Etude. The three hymns in which your 
readers show the greatest interest have been very dear 
to me every since they first appeared; but my favorite 
hvmns do not appear in your record at all. These are 
“It Came Upon the Midnight Clear,” and “Calm on the 
Listening Ear of Night” by an obscure poet named 
Edmund Hamilton Sears, “Hark, the Glad Sound! the 
Saviour Comes” by Philip Doddridge, “Joy to the 
World! the Lord is Come” by Isaac Watts, and “Lord of 
all Being, Throned Afar” by Oliver Wendell Holmes. 
These five hymns do not appear at all in your record. I 
am surprised by the small vote received by “Onward, 
•Christian Soldiers,” and also the fact that “The_ Son of 
God Goes Forth to War, a Kingly Crown to Gain” does 
not appear at all. I have heretofore thought that these 
two hymns were great favorites in Evangelical Protes¬ 
tant denominations. 

I am not sure that I have any one favorite hymn; but 
I am inclined to think that it is Addison’s “The Spacious 
Firmament on High,” which I learnt at my father s 
suggestion when I was a little boy. 


(Author, Diplomat, Educator) 

This list of hymns is an excellent one. All of them 
except the one entitled, “Will There Be Any Stars?” were, 
and still are, constantly used by me in the conduct of 
Christian Service. I should add: “O Master Let Me 
Walk with Thee.” “Jesus, Thou Joy of Loving Hearts.” 
“O Jesus, I Have Promised to Serve Thee to the End.” 
This last is the hymn with which I most frequently close 
a service. 


(Former Secretary of State) 

I find that my favorite religious song comes rather 
low in your list, possibly because there are two tunes, 
one of which is, I think, much more suited to the words. 
“One Sweetly Solemn Thought” sung to the tune with 
the slowest measure is my favorite hymn. 

Another song that I am fond of does not seem to be 
mentioned, “I’ll Go Where .You Want Me to Go” is 
one of the best of the songs of consecration. 

The songs, however, which have received the largest 
vote are excellent selections from the large number of 
soul-stirring hymns. My father’s favorite hymn Kind 
words Can Never Die” was one of the best songs fifty 
years ago; it seems to have disappeared although the 
value of kind words is not less to-day than it was then. 

Their Favorite Hymn 

George Ade— Onward, Christian Soldiers 
Irving Bacheller —Dear Lord, the Father of 

Henry Ward Beecher— Jesus, Lover of My Soul 
Carrie Jacobs Bond — Abide With Me 
Hon. William Jennings Bryan— One Sweetly 
Solemn Thought 

Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler— Lead, Kindly Light 
George W. Chadwick— Now the Day Is Over 
Dr. Frank Crane — Abide With Me 
Cyrus H. K. Curtis—(Too many to enumerate) 
Bishop Warren A. Candler— Sun of my Soul 
Dr. Russell H. Conwell — Rock of Ages 
Hon. Chauncey M. Depew— Rock of Ages 
Dr. Charles W. Eliot — It Came upon the Midnight 

John Drew — Lead, Kindly Light 
William E. Gladstone — Rock of Ages 
Strickland Gillilan — Come, Thou Almighty King 
Amelita Galli-Curci — Abide With Me 
General Robert E. Lee —How Firm a Foundation 
John Luther Long — Rock of Ages 
Richard Le Gallienne— Lead, Kindly Light 
Thurlow Lieurance —Rock of Ages 
Abraham Lincoln — When I Can Read My Title 

Judge Ben. B. Lindsey— Lead, Kindly Light 
William McKinley— Nearer, My God, to Thee 
Edwin Markham — Dies Irce 
Dr. Eugene Noble — Abide With Me 
Provost J. H. Penniman— Hark, Hark My Soul! 
Mary Roberts Rinehart— Lead, Kindly Light 
James H. Rogers — Lead, Kindly Light 
Theodore Roosevelt— How Firm a Foundation 
Lt. Comm. John Philip Sousa — Nearer, My God, 
to Thee, in four quarter measure, for congre¬ 
gational singing and Gounod’s There Is a 
Green Hill Far Away, for a sacred solo. 

Rev. Thomas Spurgeon— There Is a Fountain 
Filled with Blood 
H. J. Stewart— Abide With Me 
Emma Thursby — Nearer, My God, to Thee 
Dr. Henry van Dyke— O Jesus, I Have Promised 
Owen Wister —Lead, Kindly Light 


(Methodist Church, South) 

In reply to your letter of October 12th, I name the 
following hymns: Keble’s hymn which begins, “Sun 
of my Soul, Thou Saviour Dear,” and Charles Wesley’s 
hymn which begins, “Jesus, the Name High Over All.” 

With reference to the list you enclose, I would prefer 
“Jesus, Lover of My Soul,” “My Faith Looks Up to 
Thee,” and “Come, Thou Almighty King.” 

(Distinguished Author) 

I love a great many hymns, but I believe that my 
favorite is “Lead, Kindly Light.” It is the one hymn 
that stands out from my childhood with greatest 


(Eminent Concert and Oratorio Soprano) 

Most decidedly my favorite hymn is “Nearer, My 
God to Thee.” I always loved the simple old tune. But 
I must say that I felt inspired when I sang the setting 
of Albert Holden to these words. The music fitted each 
verse so beautifully that you could not help singing it. 


(Editor, Writer, Clergyman, Mnsician) 

Yours of October 18th is at hand. Your summary of 
the favorite hymns is very interesting. It seems to me 
that it is quite representative and I should not want 
to make any substantial change in it from a personal 
point of view. 


(Director .Tuilliard Musical Foundation) 

In answer to your inquiry, I think the list of favorite 
hymns very good. I can sing from memory all the 
hymns listed except one, and that one is not worth 

Favorite hymns are related to intense moods, such as 
recollection of childhood, bereavement, religious awaken¬ 
ing, etc. They are rarely selected on the basis of either 
literary or musical worth. It is agreeable to learn that 
most people prefer a quiet hymn, such as “Abide with 
Me,” rather than some of the sentimental vapidities 
which are overworked for gain. 

In most churches hymns of service are being used 
rather than hymns of passive sentiment. 

I have too many favorites to specify any one. 


(Distinguished Clergyman and Lecturer) 

The selection of favorite hymns is only fair, and 
shows the need of education in hymnology. “Come, 
O Thou Traveler Unknown” and “The God of 
Abraham Praise” could hardly be omitted from a first 
class choice. No list is complete without Bishop Ken’s 
Evening Hymn, “Glory to Thee, My God, this Night. ’ 
My choice in order would be: 

1—Rock of Ages 

2. — O Love that Wilt not Let Me Go 

3—O God, my Help in Ages Past 

4. — Jesus, Lover of My Soul 

5. —Guide me, Oh Thou Great Jehovah 

£.—When I Survey the Wondrous Cross 

7. —Abide with Me 

8. —Lead, Kindly Light 

9. — How Firm a Foundation 

;0.—Come, O Thou Traveler Unknown 

Page 226 APRIL 1923 


(Director, New England Conservatory of Music) 

For two reasons your query is rather difficult to 
answer. First, are these hymns selected on account 
of the hymns or the tunes? Second, it is so long since 
I have had any 'active connection with church music 
that I have not been able to follow the popular sentiment 
in regard to hymns. Personally I consider “Now the 
Day is Over’’ one of the most artistic expressions in 
hymn music. I am also very fond of “Broad is the 
Road that Leads, to Death” or “Why do we Mourn 
Departed Friends," not on account of my sympathy with 
the sentiments expressed, but of pride in my colonial 

To me it is rather striking that numbers 1, 3 and 5 in 
the first group are English, both words and music and 
are comparatively recent additions to American Hymnals. 
I also note that some of the favorite tunes by Lowell 
Mason and others are not included, via., “Federal Street, 
Hebron,” etc., are not included in this list, showing a 
change in public sentiment during the present generation. 


(Noted American Composer) 

Now, about hymns: I do not find many of those I 
like best in the list you sent. Those I might name 
among them as appealing to me especially are: 

Lead, Kindly Light 

Holy! Holy! Holy ! Lord God Almighty 
Come, Thou Almighty King. 

Nobody has named the three that I would select as my 
own favorites. To wit: 

Ancient of Days (Jeffery’s tune) 

For All the Saints 

When Morning Gilds the Skies. 

(Official Organist, City of San Diego, California) 

In reply to your enquiry relative to favorite hymns, 
permit me to say that, while the list submitted certainly 
includes most of those which might fairly be called 
popular, yet the hymns listed are of very unequal merit. 
There are two tests for a really good hymn; (1) words; 
.2) music. Most of those mentioned fail in one or the 
other of these conditions. Amongst those which might 
be called satisfactory in both respects I would include 
the following: “Abide with Me;” “Nearer, my God to 
Thee;” “Lead, Kindly Light;” “Holy! Holy! Holy!” 
“When I Survey the Wondrous Cross“O Worship the 

Most of the others would fail to satisfy either the 
poet or the musician, and possibly this is the reason they 
have become popular. The class of hymn which is to 
me particularly objectionable may be called the ultra- 
sentimental type, such as “He Leadeth Me,” which is 
merely mentioned as an example. Of course, the so- 
called “Gospel Hymns” could not for a moment be 
considered seriously. 

_ In my opinion too much stress is laid upon the sen¬ 
timental side of religion in popular hymns. In every 
Christian’s experience there will be times when hymns 
which move us to tears may be considered appropriate, 
but such conditions are exceptional and in no way form 
part of our every day life. In a general way we need 
hymns which set forth the joys of religion and encourage 
us to make the best of life as we find it. 


(Famous Chautauqua Lecturer) 

I think you are doing a mighty big, as well as inter¬ 
esting, thing in ascertaining the favorite hymns of widely 
separated interests and representative people. The 
whole list is made up of hymns any one of which I 
should have mentioned had I been naming that number 
of hymns. My favorite—in so far as one who is very 
fond of hymns and was raised on them can say which 
special one is his “favorite”—is “Come, Thou Almighty 
King.” There is a swing and a majesty to the music- 
and-word combination that seems to me to make it the 
ideal worshipful hymn, just as “Juanita,” with its fine 
combination of genuine poetry and real music constitutes 
the ideal sentimental song. I love to join with a con¬ 
gregation in singing it, and find my keenest church 
pleasure in its rendition by a good choir or well-trained 

The Romance of Hymns and Tunes 

By Edward Ellsworth Hipsher 

There is sure romance in our church hymnody, ro¬ 
mance that is thrilling, gripping, soul-stirring. Almos 
no other subject of research arouses in the disturber 
of dusty tomes more really keen sensations; for we 
have scarcely a well-known hymn which has not been 
born of the soul travail of some sin-weary or glory- 
visioned mortal. 

Abide with Me 

Because of ill health, Henry Francis Lyte (1793- 
1847), an obscure Devonshire parson, found himself 
unable to continue his pastoral work and prepared for a 
southern journey. He planned a final communion ser¬ 
vice, though, as he wrote, “scarcely able to crawl.” 
While administering the sacrament he said to his flock: 
“I stand before you seasonably, as alive from the dead.” 

Tearful parishioners partook of the sacred elements 
he distributed. Having given a last adieu to them, he 
retired to his chamber. As the evening shadows gath¬ 
ered he handed to a relative this immortal hymn to 
which he had added music. It was his swan song; for, 
but a few days later, he passed away with “Peace, joy” 
on his lips. 

CHURCHMEN will find this hymn 
material of immense value for hymn 

The tune, Eventide, popularly associated with these 
verses, is one of the few surviving compositions of Wil- 
ham Henry Monk (1823-1899), in his day a well-known 
Engflish, organist and composer. He taught vocal music 

R j?Tr C n ege ’ 5* r Na r tionaI Trainln S College,, and 
Bedford College, all of London. He was a musical 
editor of several hymnals, among them the standard 
Hymns, Ancient and Modern.” His last post as or 
gainst was at St. Matthias Church, Stoke Newington 
This hymn has a wonderful record as a soul-saving 
medium It is true to the Gospel and has been a 
source of comfort to multitudes in distress. It is one 
of those which have a peculiar appeal to the lowly. 

Nearer, My God to Thee 

This hymn ranks among the best in the English 
language One may safely say that it is the most wfde y 
popular of all written by female hymnists. It was from 
the pen of Mrs. Sarah Flower Adams (1805-1849) * 
woman of fine literary taste and in later life known 
for her religious zeal. wn 

Because she worshipped with the Unitarians and con 
tributed to their hymnals, she has been persistently 

on'hi W k hem ’ *i US bringing down ™due criticism 
on her best known hymn, from the orthodox. Som^ 
have quarreled with it because of its close adW 
to the story of Jacob at Bethel. In spite of ob! 
jections, devout worshippers, the world over singTt w ith 
their own interpretation, and are satisfied. 8 
It is an incomparable lyric. The refrain «xr 
My God, to Thee, Nearer to Thee ” is so or Ti’ ’ 
so simple and so blends with the ^ole poem a“ to 
lend greatly to the lyric effectiveness. The aspiration 


of the hymn is emphatic; and the climax grows with 
. prse ; n triumphant upward steps. 

The Lusic Bethany, is an Old English Tunc har- 
monted by Lowell Mason (1792-1872), one of the best 
toown of the early American musicians. He was self. 
t; ° ht became director of a church chon (Medfield, 
2 J sixteen and located in Boston in 1827, where 
he be’ime president of the Handel and Haydn Society. 
He taught classes and was the p.oneer music teacher 
in the American public schools. He published many 
collections of music with great financial profit. 

Though lacking a distinct evangelical expression, 
Nearer, My God, to Thee, is unsurpassed in popular 
esteem It was the favorite of President McKinley 
and he died with its strains on his lips. 

Lead, Kindly Light 

The popularity of this hymn is just a little baffling. 
One would scarcely risk classing it as a great poem, 
a great hymn or a really lyrical piece, oi English. Yet, 
in spite of its many jars in rhythm, it has passages of 
striking beauty. Then, a spirit pervades the poem that 
lifts the darkness which oppresses those in trouble or 
grief. The heart-touch of the last two lines is scarcely 
equalled in our language 

The poem was written by John Henry ‘ ardinal) 
Newman (1801-1890). while liecalmed for week, on 
a sailing vessel, in the straits of Bonafu i.. Born in 
London, educated for and ordained in the 1 dish min¬ 
istry, he entered the Roman Catholic Church in 1845. 
His celebrity rests on this production 
The tune. Lux Benigna, is the compose; ,.f Rev. 
John Bacchus Dykes (1823-1870), an F.nd 1 divine 
and musician. Of fine scholarly attaints lie re¬ 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Music in I Si. I Among 
his fine hymns, this one is peculiarly effecti-... 1 1 'iibtless 
no small part of the popularity of the hymn is due 
to the music so vividly reflecting the spirit < : • words. 

The real meaning of the hymn has !><•• n object 

of lively discussion. Often attacked as atli. U causc 
omitting direct reference or appeal to the ! >dtv. its 
spirituality is of the type which lifts the ' When 
asked, in later life, to interpret the closing ' «. the 

author declared them to lie the fruit of smiir dent” 

state of mind; though, doubtless, they were t 1 ult of 
a furtive vision of his own loved ones “lost . Aide.” 

Rock of Ages 

Probably the most translated of all Chri ti.ei hymns, 
Rock of Ages, is now sung in almost ■ known 

u Agustus Toplady (1740-1778), the author. said: 
Strange that I, who had so long sat ttndi : means 

in England, should be brought nigh unto <> ' in an 

obscure part of Ireland, midst a handful of ; pic met 

together in a barn, and by the ministry oi ■ who 
could hardly write his name.” 

Neither the personality nor the works of "-her 
great hymnist has inspired more divergent .pinions. 
He climbs no heights; he sounds no depths * * * 
his greatness is. the greatness of goodne 5 is a 
fervent preacher, not a bard.” seems to I- i, sum 
of these. In spite of this, Rock of Ages has , ,, him 

a deeper and more inward place in millions . ■ mum 
Hearts from generation to generation, than almost any 
other hymnologist, not excepting Charles \Y. A 
iswof mUSIC : To Eody, is by Thomas Hastings (1787- 
'’ a natlve of Connecticut, and a self-taught mu- 
knnwn v r an i writcr - In Ws mature rears he was 

of ” d 

versions -thift ° tbcr bymn ^ appeared in so many 
versions— this to mitigate its Calvinism and to a,hut it to 

£ge re of ,re man" tS ° f °' her Creeds ' Tt >«s been the re- 
Prffice AlhT r y “ storm -‘°«cd heart. The soul of 
Vic,oria ’ ,eft ,his " orld 

Th P r u . ,esus > Lover' of My Soul 

diSv'tr&rs s,ory scems to havc c r 

scene. a d Pdmore, a participant in the 

holding a^twdK 63 We . S ' ey ’ with Mr - Pil ™rc. were 
tacked by a mm n j leet,ng on the common when at- 
Succeedffig a i,rl t ^ “> «« lor their lives, 

‘rated themselves ^ row - ‘hey pros- 

Protection from n, " tbcir hands over their heads for 

gathered they «t "* 8 ° f - ,he rabbfe ' As " iRh ‘ 

hght started bv •? m? 3 spnnfr house where, with a 
Precious hymn the ", lnt ' stone - Charles composed this 
y n ’ ‘he figures of which agree perfectly 

(Continued on page 230 ) 


APRIL 1923 Page 227 

Artistic Production of Octaves 

The playing of many pianists is marred by insufficient 
study of octaves. Without doubt this branch of piano 
technic is neglected more than almost any other; there¬ 
fore, it is highly important that , the aspiring virtuoso 
should strive to perfect himself in this point. 

Young pupils whose hands are too small to span the 
octave should be taught the principles that underlie 
octave playing by using the stretch of a sixth. They 
should also be put through a course of exercises that 
will carefully stretch the hand by degrees, so as to enable 
them to master the octave within a few months’ time. 
Great strength is required in playing octaves; and, unless 
we develop strong, supple wrists, we will be constantly 
hampered by a fatigued condition, which will limit our 
interpretation of octave passages such as occur in many 

The following exercises should be made part of 
one’s daily study, as it has proven very helpful . in 
developing strong, supple wrists, and also for increasing 
the stretch between the fingers. At count one, bend the 
wrist down as though the finger-tips were going to 
touch the inside of the arm. At count two, bend the 
wrist as far back as it will go in the opposite direction. 
After having gone through eight counts of the above, 
shake the arm (using eight counts) so that the hand 
will flop up and down in an absolutely relaxed condition. 
After the hand has been thoroughly relaxed, the stretch¬ 
ing of the distance between the fingers may be accom¬ 
plished in the following manner: For example, to 
stretch the distance between the fingers of the left hand, 
place the first and fifth fingers of the right hand be¬ 
tween the two fingers that are to be stretched and gradu¬ 
ally force them apart. The student should be cautioned 
that more harm than good will be done if any stretching 
exercises are attempted before the hand is in a perfectly 
relaxed condition. 

The hand should assume a vaulted position in playing 
octaves, and this can be illustrated nicely by holding 
a ball in the palm of the hand. In striking the octave 
the fingers should maintain this curved position. This 
same position applies to the unemployed fingers, with 
the exception that they are held somewhat higher in order 
to clear the keys. The thumbs should be curved in to¬ 
wards the palm and the wrist held about on a level 
with the knuckles. 

Firm nail joints of the fourth and fifth fingers are 
required of the student; and these can be strengthened 
by using the following exercise, which also will be of 
some value in holding the thumb in a correct position: 

Take the octave C. Criticize the thumb as to correct 
position; see that the fifth finger is curved and that 
while under pressure it does not cave in. Start the 
metronome at about 60, and at each count increase the 
pressure a little until the maximum is reached at count 
ten; and then diminish gradually until you are back 
to the normal weight of the hand at the twentieth count. 
Go through this exercise chromatically, using the fourth 
finger on the black keys. These same, principles can 
also be applied with good results in strengthening indi¬ 
vidual fingers. 

Flexible hands are needed for the proper performance 
of octaves, and the exercise which follows will bring 
about greater flexibility and expansion by alternately 
contracting and expanding the hand: 

To play the notes of ah octave accurately and clean, 
the hand should be prepared in the air. A little pre¬ 
liminary practice of forming the hand in the air and 
then testing it on the keyboard will soon enable the 
student to master this important point. 


With the foregoing preliminary exercises well fixed in 
both mind and fingers, we can begin to practice the wrist 
stroke which is used in staccato and rapid octave work. 
In playing an octave both notes should be struck simul¬ 
taneously and with the same force; this will depend on 
whether both our thumb and fifth finger are projected 
exactly the same length. If one finger is projected a 
little less than the other that tone will be the weakest. 
This same effect is brought about if our hand does not 
come down square with the keyboard. 

The following exercise should be practiced until a 
flexible wrist stroke has been acquired. In playing black 
notes the wrist adjusts itself to a slightly higher posi- 

This method is called legato or syncopated pedaling, 
and should be acquired by every student who desires to 
obtain a beautiful singing tone. 

There are various other ways of playing legato oc¬ 
taves, and the student should familiarize himself with 
them ali, so that he can use the most suitable way for 
the passage at hand. Below are given a few examples 
whose study will repay the student: 

Depress the key at 1; raise it at 2; depress it at 3; 
raise it at 4. Play this study on each key, up to C and 
back. Raise the hands from the wrists only, to the 
highest possible point. Come down square on both notes. 
Play this in all keys, using the fourth finger on the black 

After the above exercise has been thoroughly mastered 
the student should begin to work for velocity, and this 
can be gained through daily practice of the exercise given 

The up and down stroke of the hand is gradually 
diminished as the tempo increases. Change this through 
many keys, using the fourth finger as in Ex. 3. 

The singing tone is greatly desired in many octave 
passages, and the student who desires to acquire the art 
of melody playing should study closely the various ways 
of producing this beautiful tone. Tone production is 
rather difficult to express in cold type, so the student is 
earnestly requested to be very critical of himself and 
to listen attentively to the quality of every tone that he 

The method of producing a rich, resonant chord, which 
was described in my article, “Artistic Chord Production,” 
can also be used to advantage in octave work, when the 
tempo is slow enough to permit the proper movements. 

Use the following example in all keys, with the fourth 
finger on black key: 

The first octave “C” is struck with the first and fifth 
fingers, and then a change is immediately made to the 
fourth. The note taken with the fourth finger is held 
until the next octave is taken. In this way the top notes 
of the octaves are bound together. The following method 
used in the left hand binds the lower notes together: 

In playing chromatic octaves the hand should be low 
on white keys and higher on the black keys. When we 
come to two successive white keys the hand must be 
either shifted sideways or the fingers must be changed 
on the first key. 

This method of lowering and raising the hand will 
be found in detail in Kullak’s “Preliminary School of 
Octave Playing.” 

When we repeatedly use the same fingers (first and 
fifth) the tones can be connected in the following 

The faster these octaves are played the less wrist 
motion should be used. Mrs. A. M. Virgil has expressed 
this idea admirably. 

Slow tempo 

'll rr r f m i 

(t) Raise the arm With hand hanging down loosely from 
the wrist, finger tips about six inches from the keys. 

(2) Project the first and fifth fingers so that when the 
hand descends on the keys these two projected fingers will 
be the only ones to strike the keys. 

(.'!) the hand drop to the key board. 

(1) Immediately after the octave ha" ‘ - 
the wrist slightly below the knuckles. 

(5) Bring a - --’ ~~ 

s been struck, lower 

the wrist r 

s first. 

Another movement occurs in certain octave passages. 
It is a rotary motion of the hand. Such a passage will 
be found beginning with measure 84 of the Chopin 
Polonaise, Opus 53. 

These last two movements, lowering the wrist and 
bringing it back to normal position, assure one of a re¬ 
laxed position of the wrist. When the above has been 
thoroughly analyzed and the various motions well fixed 
in mind, movements one and two, and those of three, 
four and five, should be combined into one movement. 
Pianissimo octaves are played in the same way, with the 
exception that the hands are held closer to the keys. 

The pedal aids us greatly in playing legato octaves 
that are large intervals apart. In fact, only by using it 
can such octaves be played legato. 

Page 228 APRIL 1928 

The octave “E” ■ is the starting note, and the student 
will notice that throughout these passages the hand 
makes a rotary motion in an anti-clockwise direction. 
The elbow, shoulder and wrist acting as swivels, should 
be kept in a perfectly relaxed condition in order to over¬ 
come any fatigued condition that will occur if the con¬ 
dition is otherwise. 

Glissando octaves can be executed properly only by 
those who have large, powerful hands. In going up the 
keyboard the fifth finger is curved so that the nail glides 

over the keys, while the inner edge of the thumb 
presses the lower key. In coming down this P roceau 
is reversed; the nail of the thumb glides over the lower 
. note, while the inner edge of the fifth finger depresses 
the top note. , ., . 

This article is not intended to be used as a substitute 
for a thorough course in octave playing. Its mam inten¬ 
tion is to give to the student some idea as to the require¬ 
ments and possibilities of octave work, and to stimulate 
interest in the study of them. 

Securing the Mother’s Cooperation 

By Abbie Llewellyn Snoddy 

When the mother realizes her responsibility in regard 
to her child’s music lessons and begins to cooperate with 
real interest, the teacher’s task is half done. Unfortu¬ 
nately, the percentage of mothers who can be relied upon 
to oversee the child’s practice and uphold the teacher’s 
authority, is surprisingly small. If you do not believe 
it, you mothers, listen, and ask yourselves whether you 
have ever used any of these stereotyped phrases: "You 
will have to make Molly practice, Miss Blank,” “I can’t 
make Sara practice,” or, “It is so hard to get Jane to 
practice, I think I’ll let her stop awhile,’’ and so on, ad 

“So hard to make her practice?” Of course it is hard 
to make her practice, but is it not also difficult, sometimes, 
to make her learn her lessons or perform her duties about 
the home? Does the mother, therefore, allow the child 
to stop school or give up attempting to train her in the 
things that will be essential to her when she comes to 
womanhood? I do not believe the child ever lived, who 
did not need to be made to practice. I do not mean, of 
course, that a child who dislikes music, or who never 
cares to touch the piano herself for the pure joy of the 
sweet sounds she can evoke, should be forced to learn 
to play. Such a child will never play in any but a me¬ 
chanical way, and her energies should be directed into 
some other channel. But I do mean that the average 
child, no matter how musical, must be constantly urged 
and encouraged to keep her spasmodic interest alive. 
Even Beethoven, we are told, would have preferred play¬ 
ing childish games to practicing on the clavier — though 
his father’s example is scarcely to be commended, as he 
drove the boy almost to hate music, in his eagerness to 
develop him into a prodigy. 

“I can’t make her practice!” What a confession for 
a mother! If she, who has had the training and guiding 
of her child from infancy, cannot command her obe¬ 
dience, what possible chance is there for the teacher, who 
comes in contact with the child for only one or two 
short half hours each week? Perhaps some day a clever 
teacher will invent a system by which she can exert a 
kind of magnetic, psychological influence which will keep 
the pupil practicing from lesson to lesson like a well- 
oiled, well-wound piano-player, but at present there is 
no force which can take the place of the mother at home, 
who cooperates, enforces regularity of practice and daily 
stimulates the child’s interest in music. Train your little 
girl to feel her music is a real contribution to the happi¬ 
ness of the home. Play duets with her, and call upon 
her frequently to play for friends. If other members 
of the family play, or sing, encourage her to join in the 

ensemble as soon as possible. Next to the hour of family 
prayer should be placed the hour of family music, for 
enriching family life, binding the various members to¬ 
gether in a common interest and generally adding to the 
joy of existence. The writer knows one family, mother, 
father and four children, who for years have gathered 
together each evening after dinner for an hour of music. 
As the children have grown up, two daughters have 
learned to play the piano, a third the violin, while the 
son performs on cornet and trombone, and all of them 
sing well. Their music is a pleasure to friends and 
neighbors as well as to themselves and who shall say 
that the happy fellowship and camaraderie that abound 
so freely in that home, are not caused by their mutual 
love of music? Now, as always, it is the mother who 
must “keep the home fires burning,” and surely there is 
no better, no saner or more wholesome fuel for the fam¬ 
ily altar than a lively interest in music. 

To this end, the mother and teacher should work to¬ 
gether. It is well for the mother to visit the studio occa¬ 
sionally and watch a lesson in progress. Or, if she has 
not time for that, she may call the teacher over the tele¬ 
phone and have a frank chat over little Mary’s or John’s 
progress. The conscientious teacher will welcome the 
opportunity to keep in close touch with her. 

One thing more. The mother can be of great help in 
encouraging the pupil to find beauty and-worth in the 
studies and pieces which the teacher selects'. If she has 
had sufficient faith in a teacher to send her child to her, 
she should be willing to trust her judgment in choos¬ 
ing material for study. A new piece is, for most students 
an unfailing source of exhilaration and delight, until the 
bubble of pleasure is broken by remarks from the home- 
folks, which send the pupil back to the next lesson with, 
“Mother doesn’t like this piece,” or “Mother just gets 
up and goes out of the room whenever I begin to play 
this.” No matter how carefully that piece had been se¬ 
lected with a view to certain technical or artistic needs, 
its success is doomed from that hour. 

Musical history furnishes many examples of wonder¬ 
ful mothers, who, by their self-sacrifice and loving am¬ 
bition, made possible the success of a gifted child. One 
of the most charming is Mendelssohn’s mother; who her¬ 
self gave Felix and his sister Fanny their ’first lessons 
upon the piano. Later, she sat beside them, knitting in 
hand, while they practiced, to see that their time was 
well spent, and by her ceaseless, untiring energy she 
made of her talented children, two of the most culti¬ 
vated and polished figures of their generation. 

Fortunate indeed, is the child who has such a mother! 

Untangling Minor Scales 

By Alice M. Steede 

It is the common experience of teachers that even the 
more musical of their pupils find difficulty in learning 
the minor scales. On asking the pupil to play the scale, 
so carefully gone over in the last lesson, the reply too 
often is : “Oh, I got all tangled up in it and couldn’t 
remember how it should go!” a statement that is only 
too well borne out by the stumbling fingers; and so the 
ground must be gone over again. 

Teachers adopt different devices to make things easier. 
The following has been found in my experience a good 
working plan: First, try to impress Upon the pupil’s mind 
the resemblance between the minor and its tonic major. 
It is best to begin with the melodic minor, as it is identical 
with the tonic, major with the exception of the third 
note. When the first three notes have been played, the 
pupil is told to proceed by whole tones, from note to 
note until the seventh is reached, when a half tone com¬ 
pletes the scale. 

In teaching minor scales thus, fingering is a secondary 
matter, and is attended to later. To pupils who have 

mastered the major scales, the fingering of the mine 
presents no great difficulty. 

One step more follows, and a very important one. Th 
pupil is asked to play the scale in one octave and a 
the same time to name the notes as they are nlavet 
while the teacher writes it down in the pupil’s notebool 

A h CnLTJX S , C u e 7 ’ ?’ D r ’ E ’ F shar P’ G shari 

A. Come back like C major.” In this way, should th 
pupil be uncertain of the scale during the week he ; 

!° fl T der hd Pfessly. The notebook an b 
referred to and wrong practice avoided 

On one occasion I utilized the telephone to check • 
pupil s practice of that bugbear among scales-the I 
sharp minor. I rang her up during her practice L 
and asked her to go back to the piano and nlav * 
scale. I could distinctly hear the notes over the wire ^ 
consequently could tell her where her mistake fey A 
the piano was three miles distant and the w’on A 
weekly one a considerable amount of time was sa "fl 
though probably the telephone was nut tn d 

originally intended by Dr. Bell. 3 Use no 


Making Scales Fascinating 

By C. E. Cornwell Longyear 

It is not difficult to explain intervals even to young 
children; and this lays a foundation for a practical 
working knowledge of the scales. All beginning scale 
work can be more interesting to very young folks when 
taught without notes. Begin instruction directly from 
the keyboard. Take middle C, for instance, and explain 
what is meant by first or prime intervals of the key of C. 
Explain stef), or tone, and half-step, or half-tone. Le ad 
the pupils to see why the black keys are used, and how 
important they are in producing whole tones. After 
the prime interval is understood, and the pupil has 
pointed out the prime interval in several scales, teach 
each succeeding one. For drill, keys other than the first 
of the scales may be used as starting points. Also, 
find the intervals in the various scales. Fix the idea 
of thirds, fifths, sixths and tenths thoroughly. 

At this point you may give the pupil an extended 
view of the scales as a whole, showing htnv they are 
found by means of the intervals. Tiie major scales in 
regular order may be found to tie four intervals below, 
or five above the keynote of the precedim? scale be¬ 
ginning with C-major. To illustrate: beginning with 
C-major, we can readily find the keynote of scale of 
one-sharp, two-sharps, three sharps below C, G, D, 
and the other keynotes respectively. Fi n lie jirime 
interval, or key note of each succeeding so! the next 
scale may be found. Thus G major scale I - gins four 
intervals below C, and contains one sharp; i >ur inter¬ 
vals below G we find the prime interval . f D major 
which has two sharps. This may be’ f "owed in 
similar manner until all the majors in sharp 
up in the preliminary view. The pupil enju> 
little is given during each lesson. 

Take up the majors in flats. The manner 
them is just the opposite of finding the am 
Five intervals from C descending, we find i the key¬ 
note of F major, with one flat; five from ! B-flat is 
found, the prime interval of the scale of tv. ilats. Go 
through the remaining major keys in like nvc u r. 

- Explain the meaning of the words Major 
To the pianist, Major means larger; Minor ! 
in major keys, then in minor and ask the p 
tinguish between them. Select a hymn 
then one in a minor key. Ask the pupil t 
words in each. Explain how to change fro 
minor. Tell how to find each of the t\v 

scales’ relative minors. Let him count thu . 

each time to find each relative, always begii ■ at the 
keynote of the major for which the rclat; 

iis, if a 

f finding 

id Minor. 
. . . Play 
il to dis- 

i. tice the 
major to 
c major 

Stirring the Pupil’s Imagination 

By Clair J. Velie 

The stirring 0 f the imaginative powers of the pupil is 
< * lef duti « of a teacher. Yet this is so often 
neglected. So many pupils p l ay me rely notes and think 
on ' y u ln terms of the printed page. 

tdl aaS??! should tau Bht to make each composition 
certain manL,/ 1 '-'!’ Each .°" c should bring into his mind 
mood for 't P ' CtUrcs w h' c b will put him into the proper 

tone pictured J™ p UCCnt blue - So with our musical 
certain phases will n !? VC * general sombre effect, but 
Each chord I" 66 * 1 3 t0Uch of hghter shading, 
changing of but one dc !j 1 " ,tc coI ? r - and ,,u ’ adding or 

poser, with his kno W1 Vary i,s shade. The corn- 

selected these chord W Cd , ge ol ehord combination, has 
tone picture iusf . S 3,1(1 woven them into a lieautiful 
palette and comhinec o! art '. st sclects the colors from his 

Descritbe AZ 3 finished P a ''"‘"'* 

Standard Tcachinn^P * ° P' a,w Works and Stories of 
especially heT P fun„l- C "’ by Edward Ba *‘er Perry, are 
would *“ 

,or the saxophone and ;u L andlnK the g 

has to literally scour tbe thousands of players, he 
enough for the varied ! lr !° Untry to get P la y ers S ood 
J t is one thing to nfev t P , grarns of the Sousa band. 
Play it We ii y tbe sax ophone and another to 


APRIL 1928 Page 229 

The Mystery of Musical Inspiration 

An interview with the noted composer 


Secured expressly for The Etude 

the good fortune 
composers, from 
. very ingenious 

_wn and whistled 

people know of Frlml’s great 
erious kind, of his ability as 
a pianist, ana or ms exnausiive training in his art. Mr. 
Friml was born December 7th, 1884, at Prague, Bohemia. 
His parents were musical, but were not professionals 

[Editor’s Note : Mr. Rudolf Friml t 
to be one of the most successful of mod' 
the standpoint of material rewards, 
and highly melodic popular operas 

the art. He was a pupil of the Prague Conservatory where 
he studied for four years under Dvof&k anil others. He 
came to America as a pianist, to tour with his fellow coun¬ 
tryman, Jan Kubelik, and has appeared a. 
great success. He played his pianoforte e 
New York Symphony Orchestra. In 1P1Z 
“Firefly” was produced with immense sui 
then he has written a large number of su 
“High Jinks,” "Katinka, 

o with 


“Sometimes," “Gloriana,” “Kitty Darling,’ 

“Bibi of the Boulevarde,” “June Love” am 
addition to these works Mr. Friml is kn< 
different clientele by his very interesting ------ 

positions for piano which, because of their refined charac,^ 
™ 0 st valuable for instructive purposes. One of thesi 
“Moondawn,” appears in The Etude for this month. 

‘Blue Kitten,” 

_“Cinders.” In 

iml is known to a rather 
ing and useful com- 

Mr. Friml’s gifts i 
of marvelouB and 
intelligently upon 

,, of improvisation are little short 
feel that no one has more right to talk 
e art of improvisation than he.] 

th. Ini, n -hinmofnrte composition of Rudolf Friml will be found in the music section of this issue of The Etude 

“For me there has always been music. I have no 
idea of when I first commenced to love it, because from 
my earliest conscious recollection music was as much a 
part of my life as bread and butter. My father, like 
many Czecho-Slovak folk, used to love to play the 
zither. He had an intense fondness for music. 

“When I was a very tiny boy he went out one even- 
ing to purchase the winter supply of coal and wood for 
the family. Our means were meagre and the- money 
required for such necessary items seemed large to the 
family. Father met some congenial friends, one of 
whom was in possession of a very small piano such as 
one sees in the early pictures of Mozart. The tempta¬ 
tion was too great. The coal and wood could wait, but 
certainly not such a very desirable thing in the home as 
a piano. Consequently he had the piano sent home, 
much to the horror and disgust of my more than prac¬ 
tical mother who could not see her way clear to pass 
through the winter with a scant supply of coal and 

“That piano was my first inspiration. Little did my 
father realize that he was making an investment which 
some day would yield thousands and thousands of dollars 
to his son. As soon as my tiny fingers could reach the 
keyboard I commenced to strum upon the little old 
piano with its tinkling sound and its well-worn case. 
It was one of the things that I loved most, after my 
father and mother. My father made vain efforts to play 
upon the piano but with very little success more than 
a few chords and an occasional glissando which 
delighted his soul. 

“When the street organs passed, I am told I listened 
attentively to the tunes and was soon found picking 
them out on the keyboard. This was long before I 
knew anything about music. Before I realized it, 
however, I was playing. Visitors came and expressed 
their surprise at my progress; and somehow I was placed 
under the care of a,good teacher. 

“At the age of fourteen I was given a scholarship at 
the Prague Conservatory where I studied piano with 
Josef Jiranek and composition with Anton Dvorak for 
four years. Dvorak was a very absent-minded man. He 
always insisted that no one could teach composition. He 
used to set tasks for me to do and then he would 
criticise the form, harmonies and other features; but 
he never set any formal plan of instruction. That is, 
Dvorak never gave me regular instruction in harmony 
or counterpoint, although I had some instruction with 
other teachers. 

“Dvorak seemed to feel that these theoretical branches 
were natural with me. I never made any voice pro¬ 
gressions that seemed to him incorrect. Indeed, I have 
rarely been conscious of any kind of rules in writing 
anything. I never question myself ‘Is this arithmeti¬ 
cally right or arithmetically wrong? It cannot he right if it 
sounds badly; and it cannot be wrong if it sounds good. 
Of course, I realized that the ordinary way of learning 
composition is to go right through years of training in 
harmonic analysis and synthesis; but I am sure that 
many of the great composers of the past have literally 
absorbed the theory of music-harmony and counterpoint 
subconsciously. Please do not think I am placing my¬ 
self in a class with the great masters; but it is interest¬ 
ing to inquire how Mozart, Schubert, Wagner and 
countless others acquired their writing technic in music 
when they studied amazingly short periods along the 
so-called regular lines. 

Absorbing Music Unconsciously 

“Of course I played almost incessantly. I read the 
works of the great masters over and over again. 
Chopin, Mozart, Beethoven were my daily bread. Just 
as one who is born in a country and brought up among 
cultured people learns to speak the language intuitively 
without any recourse to grammar or to rhetoric, so I 
learned music in the land of music, the land of the 

great masters. Mind you, I am not recommending this 
course for the average student. Very few students 
practice incessantly enough to become saturated with 
music. Very few observe acutely as they read and 
play music to study how the great masters have obtained 
their effects. The student must learn to play deductively. 
He must not merely play the notes. When he hears 
a new effect he must immediately become inquisitive and 
strive to learn how the master achieved that effect. If 


he has a knowledge of harmony and counterpoint he can 
analyze it quicker. That is the great advantage of 
these studies for those who have not been saturated 
with music for years. 

How Music Comes 

“Of course all thinking people realize that there are 
certain individuals who are more sensitive to musical 
impressions than others. There is no explanation; they 
are born that way. Others seek expression of their 
ideas and emotions through other channels—art, litera¬ 
ture, architecture. To me everything translates itself 
into music. Any idea, any poem, any beautiful picture 
seems to affect my whole being and I am at once con¬ 
scious of melodies surging up within me. The ocean 
moves me immensely. I feel its power at once. It is not 
a question of wanting to compose. I can’t help it. 
Time and again, when I have been fagged out, my 
mind will catch some scene and the melodies come and I 
cannot rest until I get them down on paper. Once, some 
one gave me the poem of a song of the sea. I had no 
though of writing it, but when I read it, I felt the 
waves of music running across the staves, as it were, 
and before I knew, the melody came and the song was 

“Pictures are another source of inspiration. Once 
in Paris I happened to see the picture of a girl looking 
up into the clear blue sky. The idea, the design, the 

coloration, everthing at once commenced to sing in me 
and I wrote a piece called Ideal. 

“Melodies also come to me incessantly during im¬ 
provisation. One melody makes another. Indeed, I 
have often gone so far as to improvise upon a recording 
piano and have some of my compositions transcribed in 
musical notation from the roll. This really reverses 
the usual process; but it is a possibility for the com¬ 
poser of the future who is gifted in improvisation. 
Of course, if one is not in the mood, or if one has not a 
good sense of form so that the composition improvised 
is balanced properly, one can waste paper faster im¬ 
provising on a recording piano than when writing notes 
upon music paper. 

Two o’clock in the Morning 

“For years I have found that ideas come to me 
faster and better at two o’clock in the moring than at 
any other time. Then everything is quiet. There are 
no street rumbles, no callers, no telephone. It is the 
only time one can get solitude in the great metropolis. 

I have no place to go at that hour unless I want to go 
to bed. My mind is clear. Give me a clean sheaf of 
music paper and a piano and I am gloriously happy. 
Much of my music I write away from the piano; but I 
also find at the keyboard that by playing a great deal 
in a great many different styles I chance upon many 
ideas which seem valuable to me. This is especially 
so when I play in the dark. Often in the middle of the 
night I play for hours in a room entirely without light. 
The neighbors? oh, they don’t mind, because I have a 
detached house on Riverside Drive where I can play 
without disturbing them. 

“However do not think I need a peculiar setting to 
help me.compose. Many of my compositions have had 
their inception on a train going sixty miles an hour. 
The rhythm of the train translates itself into melodies. 
Often at the seashore I take a notebook when I go in to 
bathe. I hide the book and the pencil in the sand and 
jot down sketches that may come to me. Again, some¬ 
times I wake in the mowing with my head teeming with 
ideas. I always carry paper with me and put these 
down at once. A good musical idea is a practical asset. 

I have long since learned to value them and I endeavor 
never to let one escape. They are likely to vanish like 
the diamond dew on the cobweb, unless they are caught 
in the trap of staff, clefs, bars and notes. 

“The weather affects my musical moods. It was 
sometime before I noticed this. On gloomy days _ my 
music is likely to be sad or sentimental. On bright, spark¬ 
ling, springtime days I want to write music that dances 
and plays in every measure. 

Writing a Musical Comedy in Thirteen Hours 

“It seems to me that all artistic expression should first 
of all be spontaneous. It must be a translation of ideas 
and emotions. It is conceivable that the composer who 
is undertaking a prolonged work can systematically 
build his great composition, measure by measure, theme 
by theme; but all the great melodies, by the nature of 
things, have been inspirations. Whence they come is one 
of the mysteries of life. The marvel is that they come so 
quickly if they come at all. Whether in a comic opera 
or in oratorio, the records show that rapidity of produc¬ 
tion is often associated with the best known and most 
enduring works. One of my comic operas,“Tumble Inn,” 
was written in thirteen hours. By this I mean I had 
all the tunes, all the harmonies, the figuration and 
orchestration indicated. It took my copyist three weeks 
to carefully work out my notes. 

“Memorizing music and improvising seems to me to 
be of great value in music study. The mind must be 
kept saturated with music. When I came to America as 
a solo pianist with Jan Kubelik, it was a part of my 
contract to play his accompaniments. Once we arrived 

Page 230 APRIL 1923 

at a concert only to find that our accompaniments 
(music) for his difficult program had been left at the 
hotel in another city. I had played them a number o) 

times and had unconsciously memorized them. There- . , , . ' . , , , . „ rPtt :- r though less 

after 1 used no music for the purpose of accompanying, wlth the mcldents just_,related._ _ A prettier, thoug ^ ^ 
unless it was some new work with which I was unfami¬ 
liar. The effect was infinitely better. 

Improvising Before Thousands 

“The mind of the real musician is like a sponge; it 
goes on and on absorbing music consciously or un¬ 
consciously all the time. It is necessary to be able to 
recall a very great deal of music in order to recall 
whether the melodies which come to one are original. 
It has always been my conviction that by knowing a 
very great deal of music and carrying of it in the brain 
new ideas come from this reservoir just as new and 
beautiful shapes are tossed up in a whirlpool. Improv¬ 
isation is a fertile source of musical originality if one 
knows how to improvise. I enjoy improvising, hugely. 
I have improvised before great audiences in Carnegie 
Hall and found myself so lost in the outpouring of 
themes and in their musical development that I forgot 
the audience entirely. 

“The mystery of musical inspiration is quite as 
baffling to one who possesses it as to the general public. 

I have no use for the false modesty which leads one to 
deny a gift generally recognized. But one is no more 
responsible for it than one would be for having red 
hair or a prominent nose. I cannot tell where the tunes 
• come from, except that I hear everything I see and feel, 
in terms of music. It is a marvel to me that there are 
still so many possibilities for new tunes. 

“Do not think I belittle craftsmanship. One must 
know how to develop melodies. Give me four notes 
on different degrees of the staff and I can turn them 
into a melody by the various devices known to the art 
of composition. The four notes seem to take possession 
of me and go on singing themselves into a melody. I 
can think of no greater fun than doing this, unless it 
is playing Chopin.” 

How Can We Interest the Beginner ? 

By Vivian G. Morgan. 

How often we hear the child remark: 

“I just hate practice; I hate music!” 

Can you get him interested by making him feel that express 

t practice, that you command him to practice ? 
Have you failed to recognize the true American child? 
He who has the spirit, “I am an American—I am not to 
be commanded,” is sure to rebel if you demand a cer¬ 
tain amount of work from him. It takes more to get 
results from these young nationalists than merely saying, 
“Johnny, practice three hours a day and get this exactly 
as I have told you.” Johnny is likely to reply, or at 
least to think, “I will, if I want to.” 

To achieve your end, first of all make the child love 
you. If you will do this, it is but a small matter to get 
him to work for you. Recently a little pupil said, “All 
I live for is to be just like you, to play like you.” By 
the way, this should start some of us “grown-ups” to 
wearing away some of our own nails in practicing. 

But back to the subject. It is safe to say that if 
each member of my class were questioned, each answer 
would be practically the same. So the first step is to 
open the door to the child’s heart. Then study his 
method of expressing himself. Be a child with him. 
Just remember when you said a few naughty words 
about the keyboard. Sympathize with him sufficiently, 
but not too much. Lead him to see the beautiful side of 
music. Then further the purpose by giving contests 
at the end of certain periods. Arrange different little 
affairs that children enjoy. Have one to play and let 
each of the others give an opinion of the piece and its 
interpretation. At each meeting different pupils will 
play, from memory if possible. 

Let pupils feel that they are accomplishing some¬ 
thing. And, for goodness’ sake, give no “ugly” pieces 
at first. There are pieces—suitable pieces—which will 
appeal to every child. So make it a point to give them 
pieces in which they will delight. And last, but not 
least, keep at heart the interest of the child instead of 
the dollar. Then both his and your success are assured. 

The Romance of Hymns and Tunes 

(Continued from page 226.) 

reliable story is that Charles Wesley was sitting by 
window when a small bird sought refuge from a pui 
suing hawk by hiding in the folds of his coat. _ 
Charles Wesley (1708-1788), born at Epworth, Lin¬ 
colnshire, was the youngest of nineteen children. A 
eighteen he entered Oxford, was later ordained into the 
English priesthood, and in 1735 accompanied his brother 
John on a missionary journey to Georgia. Returning 
to England, he fell under the influence of a devout Mo¬ 
ravian, received the blessed assurance of pardoned sins, 
and in connection with his evangelistic work became a 
prolific hymn writer, in all producing more than six 
thousand. Time has divided first honors between him 
and Isaac Watts as writers of English hymns. ^ 

The music, Martyn, best known in association with 
these words, is by Simeon B. Marsh (1834- ), who 

seems to have left no further record in musical annals. 

“A hymn for the distressed and for the sinner,” it 
has been described also as “ painfully materialistic for 
a hymn sacred to an. ideal religion.” Again, “the one 
central, all-pervading idea of this matchless liymn ' s 
the soul’s yearning for its Saviour;” and none has 
oftener .passed the lips of man. 

Holy ! Holy 1 Holy! Lord God Almighty! 

This great hymn of adoration' is at least the most 
lofty in sentiment of all the fine products of the pen 
of Bishop Heber (1783-1826). Born into a home of 
wealth and learning, Reginald Heber enjoyed every ad¬ 
vantage in training and culture. After making a brilliant 
record at Oxford, he was ordained to the ministry and 
rose to be Bishop of Calcutta. Among his many fine 
lyrics is the matchless missionary hymn, From Green¬ 
land’s Icy Mountains. 

The tune, Nicea, is one of Dykes’ most widely known. 
The names of his hymn melodies were chosen, 1 for their 
especial application to whatever -suggested the hymn. 
Nicea takes its name from a town of Asia Minor where 
the Ecumenical Council of 325 A. D. was held, at which 
the doctrine of the Trinity was finally elaborated. Taken 
together, the verses and music furnish a sacred song 
that has no' superior. 

Not appealing strongly to the emotions in the usual 
interpretations of the phrases, yet this hymn moves the 
finer religious feelings as do but a few "others. In its 
of adoration of the Trinity and the majestv 


me etvd, 

Omrcb~of Land and Sei of New York! hL mw ! 
where he continued to the end of life. Clt h 

Dr. Hopper was the author of many hymns and wr 
much for sailors, many of whom were drawn to w 
services; but the first, and last two, of the original • 
stanzas of this poem are his only permanent gif/j* 
Christian hymnody. It was first published anonynmJ 0 
in 1871 in The Sailor’s Magazine. 

The music is by John Edgar Gould (1822-1875) 
native of Maine who spent much of his life in pp, a 
delphia. He was a successful composer of hymn tun* 
and glees, and he compiled eight books of church musk 
The words and music found their way into a for 
gotten collection of hymns, was copied into Spirit,!', 
Songs (1878) and later acknowledged by the author 

Though small in quantity his legacy - 

is rich in its heart searching and i 
worked much among seamen; and tin 
them is sung in his immortal hymn, 
sea is felt in the pulse of its cadem - 
ibly draws the soul into the boundk 

My Faith Looks Up to Thee 

This touches the very zenith of A: 

It combines perfection of poetic e 
versal heart appeal; and hence it 
Written by Ray Palmer, D.D.. t I 
become an eminent Congregational 
expression of the deep feelings < > f 
distressed by ill health. He has said 
to what I felt by writing, with little , 

I recollect I wrote them with very ti 
ended the last line with tears." 

The manuscript was carried in hi 
some two years, till one day he met I I 
who asked him for a few hymns fm 
was about to publish. 

The music, Olivet, is by Dr. M.v, 
receiving the poem, he said to Paine 
many years, and do many good :1m u - 
will be best known to posterity as i 
hymn.” This is already true; fi r it i 
only that the writer’s name is conn • 

Looks Up to Thee is known, loved 
English has gone; and it has been it 
tongues. It is the finest devotional h 
ary and Devotional Period ( 1781) | 


dictation. He 
,s I>el he taught 
rhythm of the 
and it irresist- 
acean of God’s 

1,1 with uni- 
' >• later to 
cr, it is an 
11 soul, when 
1 gave form 
the stanzas, 
motions, and 

ket-book for 
•'well Mason 
iew book he 

diortly after 
"ii may live 
I think you 
thor of this 
ill is medium 
My Faith 
u wherever 
I into many 
ie Mission- 
of English 

of inspired truth, it is Unequalled. 

Just As I Am Without One Plea 

“The greatest evangelistic hymn in the language” was 
written by Miss Charlotte Elliott (1789-1871). Though 
none of her poems has reached the celebrity of Nearer 
My God, to Thee, the quantity and quality of her writ¬ 
ings advance her easily to first place among English 
women hymn-writers. 

This hymn has its history. In-1822 Dr. Caesar Malan 
was visiting Miss Elliott’s father. As they sat convers¬ 
ing, he asked if she thought herself to be an experi¬ 
mental Christian. Being in very ill health, the question 
made her momentarily petulant, and she retorted that 
religion was a question which she did not care to discuss 
Dr. Malan assured her that he would not pursue a sub" 
ject unpleasant to her but that he would pray that she 
might give her heart to Christ and become a useful 
worker- for him. 

Several days later the young lady apologized for her 
abruptness confessing that his question and parting 

fcSi 1 "' •** 1 * « k ™<; 

“Come to him just as you are" answered Dr. Malan 

Further advice opened her mind to spiritual light, and 
a long life of devotion and faith began. Later becomi™ 
editor of Tk, 1WI, Intelligencer, ££‘533 
poems were used anonymously in making up the firs 
number, (1836), and among them was Jus! As I Am 
Her brother, a preacher, declared that all his work had 
done less good than this one hymn of his sister 

I he music, Woodworth , was written h v w-h- 
Bachelder Bradbury (1816-1868), .one of th^'earN 
American musicians, a composer and leader of 
conventions and who edited more than fifty collret 0 „! 
?inn m r„„°l Wh ‘ Ch Fresh **** reached a Sf?3 

All Hail the Power of Jesus' Name 
Tms one of the most widely km... ! best lov, 

ot all hymns, first appeared in The <, 'm/a-ine 
1780. Its author was Edward Pern 1726-1792 
of a long line of ministerial ancestrv mself a c 

worker with John and Qutrles'' V. ' -, " Thou* 
learned, witty, consecrated and indue: •: . his clai 

zsxEr res,s entire,y upo:i 1 ° ,,e a,m ° 

First sung to the tune Miles Lane In hrubsole, th 
n , am0st universally displaced In nation < 
Oln Holden (1765-1844), American , ,-r, teache 

ctllecion r r 0r and Pub,ishcr - first ,red in 
in 170t Harmon y. Which Hold, n brought 01 

that tri I m T has . tKcomc - wedded tn the won 
literarv t ! popu,ar mind, the combined musical an 
ThoLf r r includ «I m the one word Corona,io 
held the ’bearish?° St * Xal, . ed semimou - this hymn hi 
Its scrinhmf n- gcneratlons - It silences the criti 
begffi wTl a ” US,0nS P,ace i» a class alone. The: 
“stem of h JesseVrod” ,, ' a<1 t m ” ° n ' 5 ' to progress by *! 
and others I ts an w.i C womm ’ ood and thc gal 
Jesus from u Sp cn id sweep exalts thc lordship c 
“th eveX,ffi; n t V nMr " i " g stars sang together” i 
everlasting song” of the New Jerusalem. 

The fop'b 6 0riginal “ R ° ck Ages” 

ss-SS? sswa 'io°£ 

1,200,000 copies. 

I endorse the study of elocution 
for all singing. No one can realize how much simpler 
and more efficient it would make the work of the singing 
teacher.—L illi Lehmann. 

Jesus, Saviour, Pilot Me 

The beautiful nautical figures of this tmm 
preparatory study reflection of the associations of the at "if* ® 
Hopper, D. D„ (1818-1888), was the son of X nl 
“1 °< * »ther descended "S 
Huguenots. He early entered the Presbyterian , 

mmerman. < See p a ~ 22« , R,,,lt 10 us 1 

well-known hvmn “mf»J >er 5 0n in a million w,m si "S s 

the hymn, ami "i-if of Ages." knows the bistorj 

writing of it. The JJ. r ““ k hf '' 1 anything to .it. with 
ffidy. pastor In eh,. fh0 J “ f I! ” v - Aguslus 

England, was "on h l^’ 1 ' ” f K, ngdon (1762-0-1) near Kri 
a 'id, being over-fob " T J vaIkta t.' through Burrington Coi 
shelter in the , ,J'- V n terrific thunderstorm, sol 

waa raeins twr s ' 

Book of Ages, cleft for me 
A few year, '1 h , !,lp "'-'self in Tbee." 

Inscription was obiceS ■"’’‘W" ta,ll( ‘ t - hearing the folio; 
In memorv of V . in *>■<• parish church of the vU 

of 7h,‘ n r rk •" »”■ or< 

1 Parish. Aecs. Curate ii 

”* mis parish’ 1762 Vo AC “ B -' r,lrat< ' ln 
beneath Whltefield mI G 4, h '’ s ‘' remains now 

a Memorial Church, London.” 


APRIL 1923 

Page 231 

From Broadway to the Pueblos 

The Recorder Chats About Two Noted Musical Geniuses 


Etude readers will find Mr. Lieurance’s latest song “Ghost Pipes” and Mr. FritnVs latest pianoforte composition 
“Moondawn” in the music section of this issue. 

Thurlow Lieurance says that he has never had a 
disagreeable experience with an American Indian; that 
he has never felt at any time, with any tribe, that he has 
been in the least personal danger, and that during his 
years of travel and life among the different American 
tribes, he has never had a penny stolen. This contra¬ 
dicts at first-hand some of the popular traditions about 
“Poor Lo!” 

In fact, the Indian is little longer to be pitied, from 
the standpoint of opportunity. Many of them have 
become enormously wealthy through the development of 
their properties. Very few people know that we now 
have in the United States Senate two men who are 
half-Indian—Senator Curtis, of Kansas (Kaw parent¬ 
age), and Senator Owens, of Oklahoma, said to be the 
richest man in Oklahoma. The latter is half-Cherokee. 

Mr. Lieurance, who, together with Mrs. Lieurance 
(Edna Woolley) and the flutist of the company, Mr.- 
George Tack, has given concerts this season from coast 
to coast with enormous success, carries with him a rare 
collection of Indian flutes which lie has secured from 
tribes all over the United States. A few are shown here: 

Reading from left to right, the first is an Omaha alto 
flute. This is remarkable because many of the leading 
manufacturers of flutes are. only just now beginning to 
make alto flutes. The Indians have had them for years— 
possibly centuries. Like all Indian flutes, it is not 
played with the instrument held horizontal to the shoul¬ 
ders, but is played held like a clarinet. The Omahas 
are still a blanket tribe, although some of the young 
men use modern dress. They are very rich, and own 
in their reservation all the ground on one side of the 
Missouri river from Omaha to Sioux City. They still 
have their old dances. During recent years they have 
been the victims of a drug beverage made from the 
pyote nut, imported from Mexico. In order to partake 
freely of this “within the law,” it is said that they have 
organized religious cults and made the drinking of pyote 
a part of the ceremonial — like sacramental wine. 

The Omahas are a high-grade tribe. Flute No. 2, 
however, was made by the Utes, one of the wildest 
tribes in our country. They live in desolate sand hills 
north of the Grand Canyon, making their livelihood 
mostly by hunting. This flute is made of a piece of 
gas pipe, and has a scale of only four intervals. It is 
played by blowing on the rim of the flute. 

The third is a Chinese flute. It has the whole-toned 
scale, and’ a peculiar timbre because one of the openings 
is pasted over with a piece of onion skin, giving the 
instrument a tone resembling the oboe. 

Flute No. 4 is of the Shoshone Tribe, and has been 
made from a gun barrel. The Shoshone Tribe is a 
political division of the Sioux Nation. They are Indians 
of high intelligence, with big brains. 

Flute No. 5 is Cheyenne. It is made of cedar. Over 
the resonance chamber is a device or totem signifying 
the tribe to which the Indian belonged. The Cheyennes 
were great fighters, and are said to have been the only 
Indians known to have charged U. S. Cavalry face to 
face. Along with this, the Cheyennes are noted for 
their music. 

Flute No. 6 is of Kiowa origin. Its scale is a pure 
whole-toned one, indicating that this tribe employed this 
device centuries before Debussy ever thought of it. The 
Kiowas are hunters. Their locale is Oklahoma. They 
are “Government Indians.” They were great fighters 
and buffalo hunters. 

Flute No. 7- is of the Winnebago Tribe. The Winne- 
bagos are part of the Sioux Nation. This flute was 
the property of Angel De Costa, the only artist painter 
of renown of the Indian race. This tribe has produced 
many able people, but has been almost wiped out by 

Flute No. 8 is of Pueblo origin. The Pueblo Indians, 
according to Mr. Lieurance’s belief, must be of Aztec 
descent. They have their altars and sacrifices, indicating 
a probable connection. This flute is made of cotton¬ 
wood, and its intervals are so irregular that it seems to 

have little direct connection with what we know as 

The adjoining flute (No. 9), the last in the row, also 
is Pueblo. 

Lieurance feels that the most musical of all the 
Indians are the Sioux, who have very beautiful love 
songs. The best flutists are the Cheyennes; the finest 
ceremonial chants belong to the Pueblos, while the best 
rhythmic dance songs are to be found among the Crows, 
the Winnebagos and the Chippewas. 

No one questions the authenticity of Mr. Lieurance’s 
inspiration for his famous Indian songs, because of his 
long intimacy with so many tribes. The Melody of 
By the Waters of Minnetonka, for instance, was in¬ 
spired by a Sioux love song; while the melody of 
Ghost Pipes, Mr. Lieurance’s latest hit, which is given 
in this issue of The Etude, came from improvisations 
of his own upon the Omaha flute shown herewith. The 
peculiar intervals seemed' to play themselves into a 
lovely theme which he was quick to put down and em¬ 
ploy. Sometimes Lieurance digs up a veritable' galaxy 
of Indian themes, ranging from lovely plaintive melo¬ 
dies to powerful war and ceremonial songs. Thus, in 
the American Indian Rhapsody which he wrote in col¬ 
laboration with Mr. Preston Ware Orem, the following 
themes were used in this very effective and unusually 
successful composition: 

Cheyenne Flute Melody (played by John Tur¬ 
key Legs); Kiowa Flute Call; Sioux Love 
Song; Sioux Courtship Song; Sioux Love Song 
(by Frank Double-the-Horse) ; Chippewa War 
Dance Song; Pueblo Ceremonial Song; Flute 
Song for Spring; Crow Indian Owl Dance 
Song; Sioux Scalp Dance. 

Hanimerstein boasted that he wrote an opera—was it 
not “Santa Maria?”—in twenty-four hours. It ran or 
sailed the great white way for a short and stormy voyage. 
There was some dispute among the critics as to whether 
it was really music or not. No one however disputes 
the musical value of the works of Rudolf Friml; and 
probably no one since the time of Handel, Mozart, 
Rossini and other lightning-like transcribers of notes to 
the page has ever excelled Friml’s speed at composition. 
He wrote one comic opera in thirteen hours. How does 
he do it? Largely because his mind thinks musically 
almost all of his waking hours. He can turn on the 
music just as the ordinary mortal turns on the electric 
light. . 

Once Josef Hofmann attended one of Friml’s piano 
recitals in California. The last number of the program 
was a Bohemian Rhapsody. Hofmann was delighted 
with it and at the end asked Friml if he. might have a 
copy or a manuscript of his work. 

“There isn’t any manuscript,” ejaculated Friml. “There 
never has been any. I always print Bohemian Rhapsody 
at the end of the programbut I have never written one. 
I just think of some of the lovely old folk tunes of my 
native land and start in to improvise.” 


A better Friml story is that of the time when his 
Auf Japan was produced in the Dresden Royal Opera 
many years ago. The Ballet master was a Bohemian 
who is now with the Metropolitan. The Ballet was 
such a success that Friml secured a contract to write the 
music for the annual Weinachtsm&rchen or Christmas 
Pantomine, the libretto of which was much the same 
each year. 

One night Friml’s Bohemian friend said, “To-morrow, 
Friml, we go to the opera; and you will play your 
manuscript for the Committee at the stage rehearsal. 
The Governor, the director and the officials are all 
expecting it.” 

Suddenly it came over Friml that there was no 
manuscript. In fact he hadn’t given a thought to it 
when there were so many delightful things to do in art- 
loving Dresden. He could play all day, so why spend his 
precious youth at the sordid process of putting notes 
down on paper? 

“But you must go,” said the friend. “You must write 
something to-night. Your contract calls for it.” 

“How can I?” protested Friml; “I have an ulcerated 

“But you must come to the rehearsal,” insisted the 
ballet master with an ancestral respect for the powers 
that be.. 

Next day Friml appeared smiling blandly, before the 
Committee with the announcement that he had not yet 
finished the manuscript but would be glad to play parts 
of it. Sitting himself at the piano in the orchestra pit, 
he started to improvise the overture. 

“Fein! Ausgezeichnet! Vermose 1” exclaimed the 
committee in delight. 

The curtain ascended upon a snow scene. Friml’s 
friend put the words of the first chorus before the 
young Czecho-Slovak who at that time spoke German 
very indifferently and said, “Here is the opening chorus. 
It is Schnesflocken (snowflakes). Let’s hear it.” 
Friml saw the words for the first time but had no 
hesitancy in putting, a melody to them at once. “Great F 
exclaimed the committee in concert. Thus this genius 
proceeded through the entire work, improvising it to 
order. The following week when he came with the 
manuscript the musical directer went over it carefully 
and said, “The music is lovely; but somehow it seems 
a little different from what you played last week,” 
“Yes,” remarked Friml; “I made a few changes.” 
Friml’s moods range from the Broadway musical 
comedy to Concertos and Piano pieces that many of 
the masters of yesterday would be proud to claim. 

The Musical Harvest 

By G. V. Aram 

Fine Playing is the Harvest of Fine Practice. 

Your teacher, who knows the value of this golden 
rule, will assign your piece in plenty of time. It re¬ 
mains with you to practice faithfully right from the 
start and thus avoid the final rush. The piece which 
you read to-day for the first time may not be intended 
for public performance until next year. Yet, the ex¬ 
cellency of next year’s performance depends upon your 
application to-day, to-morrow, and each successive day 
until the fatal or triumphant date of the recital. 

Feverish practicing during the last few days before 
a concert not only does pot -make up for past deficien¬ 
cies, but causes nervous strain which, when the crisis 
comes, will surely deprive you of your already scant 
resources. Your breaking down at to-day’s recital, if 
such a dreadful thing happened, came most likely from 
practicing too little last year and far too much last week. 

The Hindoos, who are famous for their wonderful 
memory, have a saying “You must forget- a thing seven 
times before you know it.” Be sure, then, to give your¬ 
self plenty of time, so that your seventh forgetting does 
not occur on the platform. 

Above all, remember that the execution of a piece 
depends less on actual practice on the piece itself than 
on your general musical development. The piece is your 
harvest. It should be the natural outcome of months 
or years of faithful routine work, as the blossom on a 
rose tree comes after months of careful pruning and 
soil cultivation. 

Page 282 APRIL 1928 

Do You Know Your Pupil ? 

By J. Lilian Vandevere 

Do you ever realize, Teacher of Music, that for the one 
or two hours spent with you each week, the children 
spend a far greater part of their time in school, and that 
you could, with profit, find out much about this school 
work, analyze what you hear, and use this material in 
checking up your work, your results, and the reasons for 
the problems that arise ? 

Do you find out what subjects in school your pupil 
likes best, and the correlative tendencies in your own line 
of work? Have you experimented to see if your pupils 
read English easily? Do you realize that*the diffident, 
slow-spoken ones read music slowly, because the inter¬ 
pretation of any printed symbols is to them a laborious 
process? The glib talkers make good readers, but poor 

Have you ever asked about school reports, and found 
that your plodder is a shark at mathematics, but has to 
be reminded of marks of expression ? The one who plays 
with expression talks well, and reads music rapidly, but 
seldom can be relied on to remember details or read 

Could any of your pupils use their music in the school 
program, and so legitimately advertise the fact that they 
are musically well taught? Have you ever asked if piano 
solos are permitted on special days at school, and seen 
to it that if any children played, your pupils were among 
them? Can you tell if there is a school orchestra that 
some older girl might accompany, or a chance to play for 
marching that might be just the incentive for the boy 
who is a problem? Are you sure that your pupils ask 
their school teachers to attend the recitals in which they 
appear? Parents often ask a teacher whose opinion they 
value, to recommend some one in the musical profession. 

What About Reports ? 

Do you ask about reports, for your own satisfaction? 
They may prove that if John can get excellent in three 
subjects, good in four, and good in effort and conduct, 
he can surely achieve creditable results in music with 
proper work' on his part. 

Do you link the great masters with their distinguished 
historical contemporaries? Do gavotte and minuet call 
to your pupils’ minds visions of courtly or colonial peri¬ 
ods? How clearly do they realize that certain solos are 
typical dances or tone pictures of the countries their 
geographies present? Have you shown them pictures of 
peasants in native costume, ready for these dances? 

Do you know exactly what hour ends school for the 
day, whether it is a private school that sees its flock 
departing in limousines at one-thirty, or public school, 
where the eager, pent-up crowd tumbles out into the 
grateful and all-too-short freedom at three-thirty? Do 
you ask what are the school requirements in home work, 
so that adding this to your other knowledge, you may 
justly determine the amount of work to require and insist 

Have you ever compared, in the privacy of your own 
thoughts, the report marks given you by children of the 
same age and grade, and found that the teacher at school 
and yourself could unanimously take certain pupils and 
thrash them soundly, to their own infinite betterment? 
All your devoted efforts will not make even a passable 
player of Sue who reports with the utmost composure 
month after month, “I got fair for general standing, 
again, same as last time.” 

In the near future, credits for outside music study will 
be given in High Schools, and some of the pupils with 
talent and splendid capacities will be free to devote a 
fair amount of time to music. They will be looking for 
well-prepared and progressive teachers. 

Could you define the term “project problem method,” 
that is on every educator’s tongue, and apply it to your 
own work? 

Have you sensed the fact that public school music is 
being brought to a state of coherence and inestimable 
worth before undreamed, and that your pupils, accus¬ 
tomed to a wide-awake teacher in school and a trained 
supervisor in music must not come to your studio and 
find a dull, uninformed person who knows nothing of 
modern pedagogy, or the pulsing world beyond the studio 

In an intelligent insight into the pupil’s work in school 
lies a great help to your true estimate of that pupil, and 
an understanding of his needs. Only when you really 
know your pupil are you dealing with him fairly. That 
which you can give him will enrich his whole experience, 
and the broadest, quickest, best way to reach each child 
must be found. Are you alert? Do you know your 
pupil ? 

Thurlow Lieurance 

(An Authentic Biography) 

Born at Oskaloosa, Iowa, March 21, 1880, father 
a physician. He has no Indian ancestry. His early 
training as a cornetist was in the local band. He 
then studied instrumentation under Herman Bellstedt. 
At the age of 18 he enlisted in the United States 
Army and became a Bandmaster in the 22d Kansas 
Regiment; served through the Spanish-American War : 
saved $400, and went to the Cincinnati College of 
Music, where he studied composition under Frank 
Van der Stucken, W. S. Sterling and piano under 
Ollie Dickeshied; score reading under Bellstedt and 
Van der Stucken. When all his money was spent he 
took a position as chorus man in Savage’s Castle 
Square Opera Company at a salary of $10 a week. 
During his two years with them he studied fifty dif¬ 
ferent operas ranging from Pinafore to Tannhamer 
and from his meager saiary purchased a complete 

b he had sung. Standing ji 

- , - --viewed the opera at every performance. 
Then he became a teacher in a small Kansas town, 
lie next organized the All-American Band which 
T, ay 1 f '<' n- 11 Chautauqua circuits for several seasons. 
In lOOo the United States Government emn 
Lieurance to make Indian records at the Crow Re 
vation where his brother was a physician. His 
brother married an Indian woman. He made many 
.™ ar ?.. no T kept l,nder seal the National 
Museum at Washington. He has made innumerable 
records which are kept in a great many universities 

from a n d 8cnre 0a<i f r<? ha e T j s .^ ed and mad « records 
trom a score of -different tribes making prr - 
stays at different places. Upon one occasion a 
m which ho woo riding in the Yellowstone ' 

e down, throwing 

of f the h coun e trv' n hUn<lreaS ° f ««« * Mint's 

Training Pupils in Self-criticism 

A Wise teacher docs not claim the privilege of C rif • 
ing the pupils' work exclusively for herself, but tr2 
her young charges to be keen and exacting i n fin 7 s 
fault with their playing, so as to be able to apply ? 
proper remedy wherever it may be required. 

Do not our pupils often leave us with a hazy notl - 
of what was wrong With the lesson? If the ** 
merely calls attention to faults without taking pZ/7 
make her meaning clear to the pupil, or to sug gest 
definite remedy, little is gained. Why not change th! 
tune of: “Your lesson is very bad to-day ; you must bv in 
means try to do better, and say : \V hat do you think 
about your playing? Is it just as you would like it to be? 
How could you improve it? What faults ought y ou to 
aim to correct?” Such questions will cause the pupil to 
become conscious of her faults and Mimulate her to eradi 
cate them. Too many corrections at one time, however 
will tend to confuse and discourage , pupil, especially 
if given in a carping and fault-finding tone. 1 

Thomas a’Kempis says: “If i-n-i year we rooted 
out one fault, wc would soon become perfect men." Let 
the music pupil apply this to hcr.seIt md if she thinks a 
year too long a time for rooting out one fault, she may 
set about trying to accomplish it in ..tic month. It j, 
evidently true that wc cannot over, our faults unless 
we are conscious of tliem; hcncc the ortance of train¬ 
ing in self-criticism. 

Come Down to the Child’s Level 

By Ada Mae Hoffrek 

Mind should not be left out of t ilculations, wher 
trying to teach. So many teachers • their chances ol 
success on their knowledge of their : ,ject. Of course 
mastery of one’s subject is very r ntial; but it is nol 
the whole of a teacher's equipment 
A teacher should know how her j, mind is likely 
to act on a subject. Much may I li ned by trying tc 
recall her own feelings when she v. , child; and this 

will give the teacher a sympathy :h students. II 

memories of your own childish th, and ways arc 
fresh and keen, you will not have p, make much of an 
effort to come down to the child’s i You will in¬ 
stantly see things from the point of v of the youngesl 

The mind has its ways of taking I itrrent kinds ol 
knowledge and dealing with them . ! like the body, il 

has an appetite for different varietn i f.>nd at different 

stages of growth. If the teacher something ol 

these yvays in which the mind learn <1 what kind and 
how much, she will have a better cl mi of choosing the 
work suitable to each pupil. 

In music, as in every other study ndi stage of dc- 
v £,° pm ® nt demands its own kind of instruction. The 
child of five cannot do the work of id ,,nc of ten, with 
understanding, interest and enjoyment; mid neither must 
you expect the child of ten to show interest or enjoy¬ 
ment in work that they should hay t ’ , n doing at five 
ach age brings with it the opportune”, for certain kinds 

of activity, and they will not interchange 
It is the pupil’s point of view that counts; for it is by 
, ™ ental activity that the work must lie done. The 
teacher must arouse the pupil’s mind ; tor it must take H 
" d llU a r ,lale that which is presented. The teacher 
snouldbcable to state clearly win she teaches a certain 
tat o C ;, W y , Sl,C ,cachl ' s h hi a certain way and in a ccr- 
tam order. 1„ preparing a lesson she should sec clearly 
lts relat 'on to past and future ones. 

J5J« den ] and from a child that which it is incapable 
stunhf h 31 ltS stagc of development and then call ' 
cS d > Cause . of failure. You arc the stupid. Jus 
act^d ,?o nt ° ,ts ,evel ami remember how your own mind 
acted at thts pupil’s age. 

think o e fT S ' S- Lai,rie oncc said : “ft is ’ when 
human being 1 T* dari " K lhing *° > ,rofcss ‘V^flie 

finest. inos eoJ ’ 11 cngaged helping to form tb 
viz a °5? ldex « n ' ost subtle thing known to man. 
as your fj n D ° yoU I ’ ur P° sc to go on from day to day 
there and • prorn I> ts - tinkering here and tinkering 
e, and seeing what comes of it? Surely not.” 

fresh^amTu, °L f onccntra tcd practice 

dissipated "S?* 4 ' s ****** thai 

tired.—E mil Sauer WUh 1,16 m ' nd stalc 

APRIL 1923 Page 283 


Rhythm, the Talisman in Art Song 

An Interview Secured Expressly for THE ETUDE with 


Famous Art Song Interpreter 

fE ditor’s Note : Elena Gcrhardt, one of the most eminent art song interpreters of the times 
■mas born in Leipzig. Her teacher was Marie Hedmondt. Arthur Nikisch is given the credit of 
“discovering” her and developing her great gift for singing the famous‘‘Art Songs. Her debut was 
in Leipzig in 1903, Nikisch paying her the extraordinary compliment of accompanying her upon that 
occasion She was engaged at once for the Grand Opera, and made sixteen appearances as Charlotte 
in “Werther.” The appeal of the art song and oratorio was so great that she decided to devote her life 
to that branch of musical art. Her many tours on the Continent, in England and in the United States, 
have made her a great favorite, because of extremely musical and humanistic interpretations, showing 
dramatic ability of the highest character and a beautiful poetic insight .] 

Another very good exercise for the development of 
an even tone and of tone color is the following: Do - re - 
me - fa - sol,—to be sung throughout the entire range 
of the voice—and these syllables are sung in such a way 
that the consonants are distinct, but no more. That is, 
I do not emphasize the consonants, but touch them 
lightly with the vocal organs held in as relaxed a condi¬ 
tion as is consistent with good tone-production. 

“One could talk volumes about breathing; but volumes 
have already been written, so what is the use? The main 
thing about breathing is to get breath control. This 
comes only with almost interminable practice. One prac¬ 
tices until almost able to forget about the breath. The 
great principle is economy. Most singers use far too 
much breath. Really very little breath is needed in sing¬ 
ing the classics.. It is the manipulation of the breath that 
counts. Beware of teachers who instruct you to breathe 
in unnatural ways. Your breathing must be comfortable, 
with the main support from the diaphragm. 

Art Song or Opera? 

“Why did I abandon an operatic career for the art 
song and oratorio? Possibly because the concert plat¬ 
form commands and demands a kind of musicianship 
which is in itself thrilling. At the conservatorium it was 
necessary for me to procure a well-rounded musical edu¬ 
cation as well as vocal training. Therefore I studied with 
the composers Hanson and Jadassohn with the idea of 
mastering the essentials of the art of music as well as of 
singing. Possibly it was this which interested Nikisch 
when I first sang for him. He abominated triflers m the 
art. One had to be thorough or nothing at all. How¬ 
ever, American audiences who heard that great master 
conductor realized that (at the same time) there was 
nothing heavy or stodgy about him. His genius was so 
fine and so brilliant that every performance that came 
under his electric baton was absolutely unforgetable. 
His presence was an inspiration in itself; and his orches¬ 
tras were simply carried away by his magnetic person¬ 
ality. Back of all this was his wonderful musicianship. 

Hurried Preparation a Farce 

“But if one is to benefit from the genius of such a 
man as Nikisch, one must have first of all an instrument, 
and be able to play upon it. What do I mean by this? 
Most would-be singers want to sing without having any 
preliminary drill. They plunge right into opera arias, 
art songs and oratorios as though they were the normal 
material with which to make a beginning. Are you sur¬ 
prised when I tell you that for two whole years I was 
confined almost entirely to exercises such as scales, runs, 
Concone and Lutgen. Why? To gain control over my 
instrument. In other words, I was making a voice. The 
average student imagines that one ought to be content 
with the handiwork of God in the voice that He has 
given. Of course, one must have all that. But suppose 
vou were presented with a $20,00(1 Stradivanus; that 
would by no means make you a violinist. Nor could 
vou start your violin study by playing Beethoven con¬ 
certos. Your Stradivarius would be worthless until you 
acquired technic. Why under the sun some singers 
imagine they can sing without acquiring a vocal technic 
I cannot say. Most vocal technical work is altogether 
too shallow and insufficient. 

Dangerous to Sing Without Technic 
“As a matter of fact, it is not safe to sing without a 
technic. The emotions in singing are so impellmg, 
so deep and so powerful that unless you have the proper 
technical control, you may easily injure your voice by 
over-sinring. Every vocalist who has a great deal ot 
singing to do knows that the voice must be exercise 
daily. I practice scales every day for at least a halt 
hour. When I cease to do this my voice slips backward. 

always sung very softly. Many people 
do this. They exclaim, “What! 

These scales 

are amazed to hear ■>.! u- -— -- • . . 

Do you do those trifling scales still? My only reply 
is to explain that scales and similar vocalizes or<a “ 

vation in standing the strain. Here are * 
favorite exercises. These I sing only 
are most comfortable for my voice. 

e my sal- 
> of my 
i the keys that 

These are to be practiced on every vowel with F before 
—like fa, fe, fi, fo, fu. 

The Significance of Rhythm 

“The instrumental performer is taught first of all the 
importance of rhythm. Without an understanding of 
rhythm no player would be accepted in any great sym¬ 
phony orchestra. The composers of the art songs were 
all great masters. They knew that rhythm was design in 
music. Schubert’s songs, for instance, can be ruined if 
they are not sung with the fine rhythm which Schubert 
himself must have had instinctively in his incomparable 
genius. Take any Schubert song, such as The Trout, 
Hark, Hark the Lark, The Wanderer, To Be Sung on 
the Waters. Unless the rhythm, and by rhythm I mean 
the natural swing of the musical design, is right, 
the work is ruined, no matter how beautiful the voice. 
Nikisch was a great stickler for this. With him a triplet 
was a triplet, it was a crime to alter it in any way. Of 
course, he played so rhythmically that his rhythms were 
positively contagious. He used to insist that the under¬ 
standing of rhythm was at the basis of musicianship, 
and that the singer must, first of all, study the rhythm 
as a whole before attempting to interpret a new work. 

Working to the Climax 

“As I have said, the great satisfaction about sing¬ 
ing an art song is in the fact that it was written by a 
master who sought to accomplish an artistic purpose and 
knew just how to go about it. He worked for artistic 
balance, for'beauty of melodic line and for a very 
definite musical and emotional climax. One of the first 
things which the singer must do, is to locate that climax 
and examine the roads the composer has employed to 
attain it. This being discovered, the next step is to see 
that the rest of the song is subservient to that climax. 
Many an interpretation is ruined in its effect upon an 
audience by unduly magnifying some unimportant notes 
before the real climax is reached. After study and 
reflection, the student learns to paint with the voice, to 
keep up the musical interest in a straight line until the 
climax is attained. In practically all of the great master¬ 
pieces the composer has found that the musical climax 
coincides with that of the poetry. Examine Schubert’s 
Wanderer and his Erlking and see how astonishing this 
is.' I could name dozens of such instances. In these 
songs the dramatic climax comes shortly before the end, 
and the audience is always held spellbound if the songs 
are properly sung by an artist with skill and fine emo¬ 
tional feeling. 

Sing from the Heart 

“Notwithstanding all the artistry of the singer, the 
thing that counts most is sincerity. In other words, the 
great singers still sing from the heart, and always will. 

The public is always most sensitive about this. It seems 
to be able to detect at once whether the artist is sincere 
or whether the performance is merely a stereotyped exhi¬ 
bition of prowess. Just be yourself, that is all.. No 
matter whether you appear in London, Paris, Berlin, or 
in some little provincial town, the people are, first of 
all, human beings. They want to be addressed as human 
beings with human feelings. This is particularly the 
case with the art-song interpreter, who stands alone on 
the concert platform in an evening gown without the 
glamor of the theater. In opera it is somewhat different, 
except in modern works. In some of the older operas 
the music, the- words and the action are so artificial that 
the appeal is one largely of artistry, rather than art. 

“American audiences have been singularly receptive 
to the art song singer. They are usually warm in their 
appreciation, quick in their musical perception and inevit¬ 
able in their ability to discern whether the singer really , 
means what she is singing or is merely putting on for 
effect. The singer who tries to fool them may do it 
once; but there are no return engagements; and return 
engagements tell the story of the singer’s real worth. 
Americans are acquainted with the music of all modern 
nations, but there is a strong love for the classics, which 
is commendable. We can never hear too much of the 
classics, when they are interpreted properly. The reason . 
why some people profess not to like them is that they 
have them inadequately rendered by singers or per¬ 
formers who have not had the requisite training, or ex¬ 
perience to appreciate their higher meaning. 

The'Potency of the Classics 

“There is a dignity about the classics, combined with 
a feeling of richness and permanence, which is both rest¬ 
ful and inspiring. Look! On that wall you see a Rem¬ 
brandt, there is a Titian, there is a Franz Hals. These 
masterly canvases were brought into life over a century 
ago; but here they are as resplendent as ever in their 
undying beauty. Think of all the trashy paintings that 
have perished in this time. Why should we waste our 
precious moments with things that are as transient as 
much of the music that is heard one day and forgotten 
the next, when we have literally great galleries of musical 
literature costing us no more than the labor of bringing 
them to life? I wish that students would consider this. 
Of course, fine songs are written in each decade, which 
become classics in another fifty or one hundred years. 
We should sing these good contemporary songs; but let 
us first of all build up our standard of musical taste by 
admiration of the classics. 

Mark Twain Played the Piano 
The Etude in coming issues will be especially 
rich in voice articles as well as piano and violin 
articles. Among the most interesting is one by 
Clara Clemens, (Mrs. Ossip Gabrilowitsch) re¬ 
lating to overcoming nervousness. It also gives 
a remarkable insight to the musical inclinations 
of her distinguished father “Mark Twain.” 

Page 28J+ 

APRIL 1928 

The False and the True in Musical Interpretation 

By Carol Sherman 

During the last fifty years of the past Century, there 
arose in Germany a philosophical movement that, rush¬ 
ing through the musical literature of its time, made 
the deep channel of much of our present day criticism. 
The movement found its finest outburst in the writings 
of Dr. Edward Hanslick, although it had been moving 
along smoothly years before this renowned Viennese 
critic came into prominence. Its tendency was destruc¬ 
tive to tradition and sentimentalism alike. ■ In fact, its 
purpose was to deny that musicians, when composing 
were assisted by any association of ideas other than 
the mere musical thoughts in themselves. It contended 
that music was a distinct faculty that could not well be 
allied with other faculties. It announced, that pure 
music should be written solely to delight the mind and 
not to excite. the emotions. It assured us that when 
music affected our feelings otherwise it was not the 
music itself that did so but rather the ideas that custom 
had taught us to associate wiith it. The blare of the 
bugle, for instance, was not to be looked upon as martial 
music but as music that by long association with war¬ 
like things raised the picture of uniformed soldiers and 
battle fields in our minds the moment it was heard. 

Musical Realism 

Whether the Hanslick movement succeeded in estab¬ 
lishing a permanent basis for musical aesthetics or not, 
it did much good by turning the attention of thinkers 
to this weighty subject. It is quite possible that Dr. 
Hanslick’s idea was more logical than that of his more 
fanciful opponents; but it is nevertheless certain that 
all of our composers have frequently given many indica¬ 
tions in their autobiographies that during periods of 
fecundity they have been deeply moved by a psychic 
force in which the intellect was but a part. Even our 
most modern musicians of all schools have given numerous 
avowals of their debt to the association of poetical ideas 
during the composition of their greatest works. Wagner, 
Gounod, Massenet, Dvorak, Saint-Saens, Grieg, and 
countless others, agree. It would seem that in their 
greatest compositions the intellect has been the mere 
slave of the soul, working automatically and constantly 
to express some great human experience. 

It is not difficult to imagine the fervor, the delight, 
the ecstasy, the mental supremacy, the enchanting oblivion 
of the composer at the moment he feels the birth of an 
immortal musical conception. Let him who believes 
that it is a cool, calm, mental process read the auto¬ 
biography of Berlioz, who at times has used words to 
tell his life story, with almost the same fluency with 
which he used notes. Wagner’s entire musical philoso¬ 
phy revolves about this one point; and the indomitable 
master becomes more convincing with each succeeding 
page. It is true that much music has been written that 
is clearly intellectual but its use is limited to a small and 
exclusive circle of musical enthusiasts who can look 
through the symbols into the glorious beyond. 

There are those who enjoy the demonstration of a 
geometrical proposition, who delight in the solution of an 
algebraic problem, and can see a real beauty in the 
principle of the logarithm. These mental stimuli some 
psychologists tell us are almost as grossly sensual as 
other less reputable pleasures that appeal to other portions 
of the sensorium. Unfortunately men of ultra-technical 
training are usually amazedi because others of different 
mental experience fail to see the true significance of the 
hieroglyphics of the mathematician. Among those of 
less technical educational advantages unable to translate 
the concrete symbols of higher thought, and without 
the mental discipline afforded by their constant company, 
there exists a tendency to look upon the ardent and ex¬ 
cited mathematician in much the same way in which they 
would look upon a delighted child scrawling meaningless 
circles in a vain attempt to write. 

We are all aware that music was for centuries classed 
with the mathematical studies, in University curricula. 
It was a science of symbols as much as was geometry, 
algebra and astronomy. Many to-day look upon much 
of the music of such composers as di Lasso, Willaert, 
Graun and others who contributed! to the great stream 
of musical activity that found its culmination in Bach, 
as little more than mere symbols wrought together 
for the purpose of mental or digital exercise and simply 
indicating to the cultivated listener various other musical 
conceptions, much as an algebraic formula is a concise 
method of expressing other quantities. It is possible 
that Gounod may have had this idea in mind when he 
wrote his beautiful Ave Maria over the first prelude, 
by Bach. When these compositions are heard in this 

light, the delight of the auditor is unsurpassaMe. Unfor- 

tunately, however, to paraphrase one of t 
of Descartes, in his Principles of Philosophy, me m 
jority attend to notes, rather than to sounds. 

False Conceptions 

This very condition besetting the basal concepts of 
musical interpretation has been brought into ou 
day with the result of making glorious music meaningless 
mockery. It is safe to assert that the great majority ot 
musicians, professional and amateur, know music on y 
as a mass of symbols. Let the teacher go to the piano 
and after striking middle “C” point to the sign for 
the note upon the printed page and then ask the ad¬ 
vanced pupil what the symbol means. In every case, 
unless the pupil has been previously instructed, he 
will respond verbally “C” Whereas the correct answer 
would have been for the pupil to have made a vocal 
tone corresponding to the tone already heard. The 
note is the symbol of the sound and not of the other 
symbol that human ingenuity has provided to connect 
the sound and the musical symbol in the mind. This 
is simply the besetting sin of symbolic conception with¬ 
out an unmistakable connection with the quantity to be 
represented. Educators in all other lines of culture 
are continually striving to make this fact especially 
prominent. In music it has been almost entirely 

The true function of all creative art is ultimately to 
assist in the elevation of human society. The joy felt 
in the sense of participating in this upward movement 
is none other than that ephemeral psychic condition some¬ 
times called artistic inspiration. We have already dwelt 
upon the condition of the creator’s soul at that divine 
moment when he draws an immortal work from the cru¬ 
cible- of his imagination. We have intimated his ecstatic 
distraction when he becomes conscious that he has pro¬ 
duced a masterpiece that will outlive his very flesh and 
bones. It is an egotism symbolized 1 but feebly in the 
loftiest flights of the master-poets. Alas! Alas! with 
the musician instead of a glorious fresco, a magnificent 
cast, a radiant canvas or a towering cathedral, he finds 
his .production encased in mere symbols, poor little notes 
with now and then an indefinite written indication of 
the mood of the composer. He knows that he is sending 
his master-work out to a world of pretenders who will 
read naught but the symbols. He knows only too well 
the distinction between the false and the true musician 
and prays for a means of educating posterity by which 
his work may be spared oblivion. 

True Expression 

The true interpretation of symbols is after all the 
means of determining the success or failure of an artist. 
There are thousands of machines in our streets that 
can successfully play the mere notes of a composition, 
but they can never think the sounds. The teacher must 
impress upon the pupil’s mind that notes mean music 
and that with every note played the mind must think 
of naught but the sound that found its source in the 
composer’s soul and running through ages, like an under¬ 
ground river at last bursts forth to the sunlight of to¬ 
day, the self-same stream to which the master mind 
of the creator bade farewell years and years ago. The 
artist interpreter must not think of ivory keys with 
levers and hammers attached. His fingers must push 
down sounds not keys. 

This demands technical supremacy and predicates the 
necessity of memorizing. It is said upon good authorin' 
that Mozart, Beethoven and Brahms have transposed 
difficult piano concertos, at a moment’s notice, to suit 
certain orchestral requirements. What better illustra¬ 
tion could we have of the absolute mastery of the true 
musician. Unconfined by key he expresses music as 
only the great voice of the soul can be expressed 

Until the technical difficulties, whether they be of 
the keyboard of the voice, violin, flute, trumpet, piano 
or organ, have been mastered completely; until the prin 
ciples of harmony have been firmly established; until 
the aesthetic taste has been highly cultivated - until useful 
historical traditions have become definitely fixed- until 
all of the foregoing have become as automatic as speech 
itself ; until the artist is done with artifice and conse 
crated to human art, there can never exist an apn u 
to that sublime moment when the new-born work tar2 
forth from the composer’s soul. Until this condition 
is reached the musician is a false prophet, a charlatan 

torn" r>b “' ““ " ,reh - e '“>' 

Behind the Scenes with Artists 

By Harriette Brower 

Do Artists Like to Teach? 

Percy Grainger is one pianist who confesses to 
a liking for imparting musical knowledge to others. ]„ 
speaking of this branch of the artist s activities, he said; 

“I enjoy teaching immensely; it is such individual work 
like conducting, for it is an effort to bring out the mean! 
ing of the composer through another medium, another 
mentality. It is showing others how to express the idea- 
and this effort makes the whole scheme even more clear 
and vivid to the artist himself. A true artist-teacher 
can greatly assist the student, because he is able to show 
him exactly how certain effects are to be- made, provided 
the pupil is sufficiently advanced to profit by such sug¬ 

“As for set methods of piano technic. ] do not spe¬ 
cially care for them; in fact 1 avoid them. If they do 
not make the pupil think for' himself. t!«-> are only an 
excuse for laziness, because they do tie pupils thinking 
for him. After laying a good technical foundation, the 
student can acquire further technical training in the 
pieces he studies. No. I am against set m!ri for technic. 
If the player wants to play wit - his ban.! turned upside 
down, I dare say he could do it, if he wnrked at it with 
the same zeal that he does with the ai n-pted position 
This is to say, I believe the artist-teacher should incul¬ 
cate principles of technical freedom and individuality in 
every player. 

The Auditory Pleasure of Good 

By Benj. E. Calpin 

While the visual pleasure afforded l>> 
linists is second only to a compn \ 
soldiers, let us not lose sight of that 
auditory or car pleasure of bowing 

A lesson with far-reaching influence m 
having teacher and pupil occupy adj- >inii 
they may hear but not see cat h ol 
bowings. This, of course, follows a sine 
“Why Bowing is Important" and you w I! 
that most pupils are inclined to make 
reveal a knowledge of eye pleasure 
pleasure. They will say: "It looks I 
orchestra bowing together" and one i- not 
anything mentioned concerning either i: 1 : 

A good question to start the pupil thinkim 
lines is: “Can a deaf and dumb man - • 
select the best violinists in a symphnm 
ing a motion picture?” or “Can a blind > - 

ear criticize the bowings of a violinist 
of bowing is wed?” 

Yes, this is true, and an inspiring n i 
to your young student when he disc«*\ 
power to detect by ear alone the sounds , • 
mgs made by his teache- in an adjoinim 

«>dy of vio- 

l*‘ given by 
"ins so that 
vith various 

«'ii discover 
nents which 
cess of ear 

along these 
»>d eyesight 
stra by see- 
with a good 
1 what style 

Tricking the Audience 

By Sidney Bushell 

The widow of Theodore Thomas recalls bis Arrani 
merit for orchestra of Schumann's “Traiinicrei,” •end 
With muted strings—“piano, pianissimo, pianississim 
as he said. He instructed his violinists, in order to e 
phasize the effect at the end. to continue drawing th 
ws across the strings without making a sound. 3 
audience imagined it still heard the sounds floating 
to an immeasurable distance, till Thomas broke the sj 
by qmetly laying down his baton. 

possibly it was not very “dignified” to do such a thir 
out as Mrs. Thomas relates, when her husband be? 
rave Wlt . h . his orc ^ est ra, his arrangement of Scl 
* x< P»*rtely dreamy little piece created such 
m . lI' 1 'n' 1 ! People everywhere that it might 
An rt. ,hc corncr stonc of his success, 
cation h f, thm . K tllat "Theodore Thomas did in his e< 
that L°VJ' C Amcrican Poi’l'v to the best in music v 
a wmn / ld " 0t , ,lcs,ta,c t0 select the best movement 
a symphony and play that alone. 

exnres!dnn artlS | t , cmi,Ioys ,lis medium as an instrument 
handW r va,u « own technical skill in 
enabled ih° f u accordin B to tlie measure that he 
Noyes ^ t0 espress hi >™-lf more effectively 


APRIL 1923 Page 285 

Musical Fads of Yesterday and To-day 

Odd Musical Customs Down the Ages 


As it is advisable for both author and reader to know 
what any given article is about, we start with a definition 
of the word “fad.” It means a “hobby, whim, craze, a 
custom, or amusement, pursued with an excess of zeal.” 

Under this definition, the early folksongs were perhaps 
fads. When the ancient Egyptian -farmer sang the popu¬ 
lar ditty: 

“Thresh for yourselves, O oxen, 

Measures for your masters, 

Measures for yourselves,” 

he may have been animated by excess of zeal; particu¬ 
larly if the Nile floods hadn’t come just right in the pre¬ 
ceding year and grain was scarce. Then there were those 
Hebrew acting songs, a sort of combination of camp¬ 
meeting and vaudeville effects, in which the children of 
Israel celebrated some triumph, such as their escape 
through the Red Sea or the victory over Sisera. The 
first is the song of Moses and Miriam, and the^ second is 
included in Judges. These were often full of a striking 
vein of satire. Thus, in Exodus XIV, Moses at one point 
exclaims with fierce sarcasm, “The enemy said,, ‘I will 
pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil.’ ” Then 
follows the triumphant recital of what really occurred— 
the loss of the Egyptians in the Red Sea. Similarly in 
the Song of Deborah and Barak (Judges V), Sisera’s 
mother is made to exclaim, “Have they not sped? Have 
they not divided the prey?” Meanwhile, Sisera lies dead 
with a nail in his head, and feels no further interest in 
any prey. At some point in these songs the people joined 
in with cheers and applause, and perhaps a short phrase 
of choral effect. These songs were certainly fads if 
“excess of zeal” is taken into account. 

When Homer composed those ringing hexameters that 
. have made him so unpopular with high-school students, 
he, too, may have been a victim of a fad. From very 
early times it was customary for the great leaders to have 
a minstrel in their train. Homer was by no means the 
only renowned poet of his time, for other minstrels, such 
as Arctinus and Stasinus carried on similar continued 
stories, in the form of epic poetry. Between them they 
completed the Epic Cycle, dealing with the entire course 
of the siege of Troy. There were eight works in this 
cycle, the two by Homer (Iliad and Odyssey) being the 
only ones that have been preserved. 

Tone Pictures of the Greeks 

In classical Greece, the most marked fad of the tonal 
art was the development of program music. The large 
stringed kithara, and even the smaller lyre, were often 
used in the attempts at tone pictures. One well-known 
instance is the effort of a musician to picture a storm by 
means of the lyre. This aroused the ridicule of the wit, 
Dorian, who stated, “I have heard a better tempest in a 
pot of boiling water.” His criticism has come down to 
us in the phrase, “A tempest in a tea-pot.” On a much 
larger scale was the tone picture of Apollo’s conquest of 
the Python, in which a huge orchestra gave such pictorial 
effects as the hissing of the monster, the gnashing of his 
teeth, and so on. 

Rome had her musical fads in even more marked 
fashion. The Roman fondness for the flute has been well 
satirized in a story by B. F. Anstey. The hero, Duilius, 
has “done the state some service” and is rewarded by 
being allowed a permanent flute player. At first the 
owner would strut about proudly, followed by his musi¬ 
cian, but finally the perpetual flute accompaniment drove 
him to extreme measures. 

Roman Flute Players 

The Roman flute-players were well organized, and their 
guild became extremely powerful by reason of its monop¬ 
oly in performances. At one period, when the musicians 
were shut out of the Temple of Jupiter, where they had 
previously been given their meals, they went on strike, 
leaving Rome and proceeding to the neighboring resort 
of Tibur. As no religious festival could be carried on 
without ‘them, the Roman people had to placate them at 
all costs. The Senate therefore sent messengers beg¬ 
ging the flute-players to come back. When tlie latter 
proved inflexible, the resourceful messengers had a local 
feast arranged, at which the recalcitrant performers were 
regaled with choice Falernian and other potent wines; and 
when the liquid refreshment began to show its effects, 

the con»tose musicians were bundled into chariots and 
drivdBfcck to the city. Their former privileges were 
restoSrto them, though afterwards, on one day of 
each year, they appeared in masks, to show their shame 
at the inglorious way in which they were brought back. 

The Gaditanian Singers 

A Roman fad of imperial times consisted of the adula¬ 
tion given to the Gaditanian singers. These vocalists of 
Gaditania (Cadiz) had the high, sweet voices found in 
Southern Europe so continuously. But the singers were 
less fortunate than the flute-players. Instead of having 
good meals, wine, and other privileges, they were re¬ 
garded as slaves, and forced to preserve their voices by 
the strictest hygiene and the most rigorous attention to 
their physical well-being. One cannot help feeling sorry 
for them; though a little of their training would do no 
harm to the over-fed prima donnas and lyric tenors of 
the present. , ,. 

The early Christian music offered no especial oddi¬ 
ties. Starting with congregational singing, in which all 
joined, the choir developed gradually, just as in Puritan 
New England, from the grouping together of the better 
singers. When Christianity became the official Roman 
religion, the churches contained great organs and the 
music became an important part of the service. In A. D. 
400, or thereabouts, Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, system¬ 
atized it into four modes based on the old Greek scales, 
and two centuries later Gregory the Great called for 
six authentic modes, with six plagal modes derived from 
them. During all this time there was no staff, and the 
Romans had not even understood the principle of the 
octave, having named their notes down through the whole 
alphabet. The Gregorian chant must have undergone 
local variations, and we find Charlemagne sending mes¬ 
sengers to Rome to bring back the purer style of singing. 
Certainly the crude fourtlis and fifths of the Flemish 
monk, Hucbald (the Organum), showed little of the calm 
beauty found in whatever old Gregorian music is extant 
at present. With the introduction of the Fauxbourdon 
(thirds and sixths) new developments arose and popular 
music began to diverge from the sacred school. 

The music of the Troubadours was more than a fad. 
It was a melodious popular school, as the many specimens 
left to us have shown. The Troubadours had many forms 
of poetry, such as the chanson, the couplet (love song), 
the sixtine (six-line stanzas with the same end words in 
varying order), the pastorelle, the serenade, the aubade 
(morning song), the pasquinade (satirizing an enemy), 
the ballad, and so on. All these had their music of more 
or less fitting character. The Troubadour school even led 
to comic opera, for Adam de la Hale composed Robin et 
Marion, in the thirteenth century. Still earlier in that 
century was composed the famous English chorus, in 
canon, Sumer is icumen in. By 1325 we find Jean 
de Muris, Parisian composer and writer, lamenting the 
“good old days,” a complaint heard in almost every epoch. 

Troubadours, Love and Music 

Perhaps the “excess of zeal” of the Troubadours ap¬ 
peared in their love affairs, rather than in their music. 
Thus William Cabestaing, in the castle of Rousillon, loved 
the chatelaine Margherita. Her lord and master, discov¬ 
ering the affair, stabbed the troubadour, cut out his heart, 
gave it to the cook to prejiarc, and had it served to his 
faithless wife, who ate it under the impression that it 
was a deer’s heart. When told what she had eaten she 
retorted by saying that the taste was so delicious that she 
would never spoil it by eating anything more. Her irate 
husband then pursued her with his sword, but she jumped 
from the castle walls, preferring to end her life in her 
own way. 

More ideal, if still rather silly, was Geoffrey Rudel’s 
devotion to the Countess of Tripoli. He had never even 
seen her, and when he finally landed on her shores his 
excitement was so great that he died of it. 

More touching was the devotion of William de la Tour, 
who loved and married a beautiful girl of low degree. 
When she died he had her tomb so built that he could 
open it at will and he would frequently do this and con¬ 
verse with his dead bride as. if she were alive. Finally 
he came to know that she was dead. Even then He 

imagined that he could revive her if he said a sufficiently 
large number of prayers, which he gallantly undertook 
to do. 

Most eccentric of all the Troubadours was Pierre Vidal. 
Being in love with a lady named Louve de Penatier, and 
Louve meaning she-wolf, he decided to adopt the role of 
a he-wolf. He clad himself in a wolf skin and had his 
friends hunt him with dogs, continuing the sport until he 
was badly lacerated. One fails to see how this could 
benefit his cause with the lady, unless she desired free 

The Jongleurs, or paid retainers of the Troubadours, 
were thrown on their own resources when their masters 
were decimated in the war of the Albigenses. As wan¬ 
dering minstrels, the Jongleurs achieved a precarious 
living by playing, singing and juggling. Their popular 
hurdy-gurdy (in which a wheel was rotated and strings 
pressed against it) has given way to the modern hand- 

Crab Canons 

In the fifteenth century, the schools of counterpoint 
began to develop. Dufay, Binchois, Dennstable, and 
others were active before 1460, and created a school of 
scientific composition. Then came the Faddists, under the 
lead of Okeghem, who developed the so-called “Flemish 
tricks.” They wrote crab canons, in which one voice sang 
a theme forward while a second sang it backward at the 
same time; they wrote puzzle canons, with cryptic direc¬ 
tions for the different voices, and they set so much store 
on technic and so little on poetic inspiration, that they 
even set the genealogy of Christ to music. A favorite 
direction for canons was “out of light, darkness,” mean¬ 
ing that the lighter-colored hollow notes (half-notes) 
were to be taken by the second voice as black (quarter) 
notes. It is not surprising that these excesses led to a 
reaction, culminating in Josquin des Pres. That the new 
school treated technic as a means, and not an end, is 
shown by Luther’s statement, “Josquin rules the notes, 
while others are ruled by them.” 

The great Italian festivals held at the courts of the 
nobility may be regarded as fads, in the sense that men 
of wealth and position were expected to provide them 
for distinguished guests. These were of various sorts, 
always spectacular in scenic effect, but with music varying 
from contrapuntal effects to a number of attempts at 
dramatic expression. Their importance lies in the fact 
that opera and oratorio developed from them. For a full 
account of these early dramatic experiments, the reader 
is referred to W. J. Henderson’s excellent book, “Fore¬ 
runners of Italian Opera.” 

IJarly Imitation Music 

The advent of soloists on the organ, and on the primi¬ 
tive precursors of the piano, led to an evident demand 
for little tone-pictures. These found their best expression 
in the works of the great Couperin and his school, whose 
program effects were always expressed in charming and 
graceful music. These pictures were often full of humor. 
The organist, Froberger, for example, after being 
wrecked in the Channel and rescued on the English side, 
wrote a tone-picture of the trip, with suggestions of 
waves and seasickness and various other trials. Rameau’s 
little tone-picture, “La Poule” (The Hen), can be used 
to amuse.a class of pupils. It should be played first 
with no title, letting each hearer record his idea of the 
picture intended. Then it may be repeated with the title; 
and this time the duckings will be plainly evident 

A Higher Musical Taste 

Modern program pieces show less of art than the early 
works described above, and in many cases they descend 
to the most meretricious effects. To-day public taste has 
reached a higher level, but in a past generation such tonal 
descriptions as The Azvakening of the Lion, vied in 
popularity with the exaggerated sentiment of The 
Maiden’s Prayer. A favorite form of such tone-pictures 
consisted of battle pieces, and even Beethoven thought it 
not beneath his dignity to compose The Battle of Vit¬ 
torio. Other composers celebrated Prague, Rossbach, 
and various battlefields, with martial music, rattle of mus¬ 
ketry, boom of cannons, cries of the wounded, and other 
graphic details. 


Page 286 APRIL 1923 

Whenever opera grew into a fad, it seems to have crys¬ 
tallized into conventional forms that prevented its artistic 
development. Such was the case with Handel’s operas. 
Their conventional arias, duos and recitatives were 
molded in such a stereotyped form that one of these 
operas was much like another, and none of them has 
survived as stage works. Yet in their day they were ac¬ 
claimed with tremendous applause. The adulation given 
to the singers made the prima donnas rather self-assertive, 
as shown by Cuzzoni’s last-minute refusal to sing, until 
Handel forced her to change her mind by threatening to 
drop her from a window. The costume of the heroine 
in Rodelinda was adopted throughout England as a “na¬ 
tional uniform of youth and beauty.” But now, though 
some numbers have survived as great solos, no one ever 
thinks of reviving a Handel opera, even as a curiosity. 

The tragedies of Rossini and his school show the same 
tendency toward artificiality, the same “writing down” to 
a public standard that was rather low. The comedies of 
these composers are still delightful, but in opera seria 
they introduced many conventionalities that seem ridicu¬ 
lous at present. The soprano was always persecuted, and 
often driven crazy. Whenever she lost her reason, the 
madder she grew, the better she sang. The tenor was 
always the hero, the bass always a villain. The music 
was not intended to heighten the emotion of the words, 
but consisted merely of lyrical sweetmeats. It is strange 
that the composers were content with these conditions. 
Rossini rose .to greater heights when Parisian standards 
led him to compose William Tell, and Donizetti’s come¬ 
dies are masterpieces of proper musical expression. Yet 
in tragedy they failed to reach any real dramatic stand¬ 
ards. The celebrated Sextet from Lucia may serve as 
an example, the words being an outburst of tragic inten¬ 
sity, while the music is a mellifluous trifle that has had its 
calm and peaceful measures reproduced on every hand- 

Among the solo instruments, trumpet playing was quite 
a fad in medieval and early modern times in Germany. 
Nearly all our orchestral instruments have been improved 
in recent times or have had their technic developed to 
new standards. The trumpet, however, is an exception. 
Trumpet passages from the time of Bach’s youth and 
earlier, are of a florid brilliancy that is almost impossible 
to reproduce today. Probably a smaller and more flexible 
trumpet, called the Clarino, was responsible for the per¬ 
formance of these passages. The early prominence of the 
instrument is reflected by the aria, The Trumpet Shall 
Sound, in Handel’s Messiah. 

A favorite custom of classical times was a contest be¬ 
tween two artists who alternated in performance before 
the same audience. The writer has already described in 

The Etude, the encounter between Handel and Scarlattb 
after which the latter, who was defeated, would cross 
himself devoutedly whenever Handels name w 
tioned, also the proposed encounter between 
Marchand, in which the latter heard the former at prac 
tice, lost all hope of victory and decamped for _home. , 

In regard to the lament for the “good old times, 
started by Jean de Muris, we find that this attitude has 
been constantly adopted by the conservatives when pro- 
testing against progress. Doubtless the Italian con ra 
puntists used it in protest against the operas oi the 
Florentine Camerati. At a later date, we find Benjamin 
Franklin indulging in the same complaint. To-day, such 
has been the progrfcss of modernism, there are few who 
have not at some time seriously considered what all the 
cacophony means. 

Whatever the ultimate destiny of modernism may be, we 
are evidently in a period of experiments. Just as the 
technic of Okeghem laid a foundation for the expres¬ 
sive power of Josquin, so our present researches in odd 
harmonic effects should ultimately place new materials 
ih the hands of some future tone-master. 

An Easy Way to Become a Modernist Composer 

It must be confessed, however, that we have no one at 
present who is a futurist master. Strauss is a logical 
development from Wagner, Liszt, and a dash of the 
lesser composer, Nicode. Debussy, some say, began as 
a genius and ended as a talent, and in any case his deli¬ 
cate charm is that of the small genre picture and not the 
large canvas of broad mastery. No one will be rash 
enough to say that the outpourings of a Scriabine, a 
Schoenberg, or a Malipiero, are the finished and crystal¬ 
lized products of a new school. These composers, like 
many others, are (or were) still “moving, about in worlds 
unrealized.” It is certainly the fashion now to try for 
an advanced style, and much of modernism will thus come 
under the heading of this article. So diverse are the 
various modernists and so jumbled their attempts at 
novelty, that the reader can easily become ■ a modernist 
himself, if he wishes. Let him sit at the piano with his 
eyes shut and play various random chords and runs of 
his own. If he will do this with a due sense of rhythm, 
we will guarantee that the result will be just as effective 
as many compositions that have won attention for the 
radicals. Yet one must not forget that if modernism has 
become a fad, it is not wholly limited to this. It will not 
only give the future genius new colors to work with, as 
indicated above, but it has already enriched the present 
repertoire with many works of real beauty and definite 
value. From this we may. conclude that a fad is not the 
worst thing in the world, and that it may sometimes lead 
to real progress. 

The Unthinking Pupil 

By May Crawford 

“The hand that follows the intellect can achieve.” 
At the end of a long day, when the pupils drift before 
us, one by one, do we say savagely and despairingly, 
“But they have no intellect!” Then comes an uneasy 
feeling when we realize that hour after hour we have 
been doing most of the hard work and all of the think¬ 
ing, thereby dwarfing, instead of expanding, each pupil’s 
thinking power. 

Are you guilty? I am. But not to the same extent 
as before the realization. It takes constant study of the 
different personalities to determine in what way to pre¬ 
sent each new problem, in order to keep the mind active— 
and in no other way will a pupil do satisfactory work. 

After all, it is a form of laziness to do the thinking 
for a pupil instead of finding ways and means of 
making that particular mind do its own thinking. 

Wake up! Wake up! 

With you, it is only one irritation in the day’s work, 
but to that young mind the consequences are far-reaching 
and of life-long importance. Think of it! Stunting a 
mind for life, perhaps warping a soul, because we are 
too lazy to find a way to develop that mind or too 
impatient to aid in its unfolding. And all the time we 
are working almost beyond endurance; nevertheless, we 
feel it is easier and quicker to do the thinking for them. 
However, it is not so for long. Once get them started 
to thinking for themselves, and progress will be more 
rapid and nerves less taut. 

Begin with the very tiniest child. Instead of explain¬ 
ing carefully and elaborately the grouping of the black 
keys, ask the child to look at the keyboard and tell you 
how she thinks we know one key from another, and so 
on through each successive step. A child may puzzle for 
some time over the difference between a whole and a 
half, note, but when she discovers it she has worked out 
something for herself. 

With an older pupil who has never realized there is 
such a thing as thinking in connection with piano play¬ 
ing, begin by creating interest. How? By giving some¬ 
thing that will not only be liked, but something that also 
can be well done. The teacher cannot thrust knowledge 
in an unwilling mind; so the first step is to put the 
pupil’s mind in a receptive state. Study your pupil. 
Does she love action? Can she feel? Is she dreamy? 
Is she bubbling over with the joy of living? If the 
latter, give her something bright and sparkling (Men¬ 
delssohn, Hunting Song; Moszkowski ,■ Madrid; Reger, 
Polish Dance). For the dreamy ones there are nocturnes 
and serenades (Turner, Serenade in D\>; Field, Nocturne 
in Eb; Moszkowski, Serenata). When one is crying for 
“jazz,” Cymbals and Castanets, by Schmoll, is often a 
stepping stone. There are those who like that which is 
different or odd (Rogers, Witches; Reinecke, Mountain 
Sprite; Lemont, Goblin; Schytte, Mermaid). Make an 
adventure of the new piece. Why begin by showing up 
all the uninteresting and disagreeable points? For there 
will be places the pupil will consider uninteresting, and 
passages the overcoming of which will be difficult, Unless 

^ V-01.V.V1 , li la. l me pupil works 

each detail for himself. Explain fully how it is to 
done, but let the final working out and under«tanc 
be the result of his own efforts. 

From these small beginnings, gradually lead him in 
ligently into the realm of beauty, from which there • 
be no turning back. Make him feel that life will 
richer through acquiring these beautiful outpourings fi 
the very depths of strong men’s souls. And to feel 1 
if a composition really belongs to us it must be t? 
oughly studied, thought over, loved and played into 
very being It never belongs to us until it comes y 
"° ^P ar , cnt .f ort and we are lost in the beauty of it 
thrilled by its story. 



Music in the Public Schools 

This Series will Begin in 
the Next Issue 

R EALIZING the ever- 
tightening bond between 
the musical work in the public 
school, the musical home and 
theprivate music teacher, The 
Etude Music Magazin e has 
had under preparation for 
months a series of masterly 
articles written expressly for 
this magazine by 

America’s Foremost Public 

School Music Experts 

Thousands of parents, stu¬ 
dents and private teachers, 
who have deep concern for the 
best in systematic musical 
progress, will want to read 
these articles closely. Watch 
The Etude for the coming 
year for this substantial and 
constructive series. Among 
those who will participate are 

A. J. Abbott 
Walter H. Aiken 
Frank A. Bench 
John W. Beattie 
Russell Carter 
Mrs. Francis E. Clarke 
Mary M. Conway 
JuUa E. Crane 
HoUis Dann 
Peter Dykema 
Will Earhart 
Charles H. Farnsworth 
Otto L. Fischer 
George H. Cartland 
Karl W. Gehrkens 
Thomas L. Gibson 

T. P. GlddimM 
Mubellc Glenn 
Edgar B. Gordon 
Eugene M. Ilnhnel 
Ernest 1 lesser 
Harvey Worthington 
J. E. Maddy 
Osborne McConathy 
William W. Norton 
Gertrude B. Parsons 
Enoch Pearson 
Thomas Tapper 
Paul J. Ucavi r 
Glenn H. Woods 

and others representing the 
Public School Music Move¬ 
ment from coast to coast. 
Leading music supervisors 
everywhere enthusiastically 
appreciate the value of The 
Etude in every home in scimu- 
lating a larger musical interest 
in the community and pro¬ 
viding invaluable sources for 
supplementary musical in¬ 
struction. The new series will 
dp every supervisor from 
coast to coast by explaining and 
stressing the importance of his 
aims and activities. 

tee etude 

APRIL 1928 Page 287 

The Teachers’ Round Table 


This department is designed to help the teacher upon questions pertaining to “How to Teach, What to Teach, etc., and not technical 
problems pertaining to Musical Theory, History, etc., all of which properly belong to the Musical Questions Answered 
department. Full name and address must accompany all inquiries. 

The Weak Fingers 

Relax! Relax! Relax! 

Aside from exercises at the table and keyboard, 
what can one do to improve the lifting power of 
the fourth finger? The cords seem to be useless 
after the finger has been raised about a quarter of 
an inch. Is this not open to improvement by some 
treatment of the muscles or cords? Do you believe 
that a great deal o) finger practice for independence, 
at a table, will eventually produce results with the 
fourth and fifth equal to the second and third 

and am now working on 
aacmnauuiua s 0 Sharp Minor, but 

find I am going to have trouble with the middle part 
unless I correct a tendency to stiffen up. I have 
notieed this much lately: If I try to Play ver ? 
loudly or rapidly the muscles In my elbows ana 
wrists stiffen, and the process becomes paintul. 1 
have been advised to relax thoroughly ; I do so but 
as soon as I try the part, the same thing happens 
again,— Inquirer. 

You broach here a .problem which claimed the atten¬ 
tion of most piano teachers through the greater part of 
the nineteenth century—namely, how to equalize the 
fingers. Schumann permanently lamed the fourth finger 
of his right hand by a determined effort to raise it 
higher. Machines were invented to hold the fingers in 
an elevated position, and exercises for the “weak fingers” 
were turned out galore. 

The tendency of modern technic is, however, to train 
each finger to do only what its natural limitations per¬ 
mit, and not to subject it to undue strain in order to 
force it toward an impossible goal. According to this 
principle, the burden of the work is placed primarily 
upon those fingers which are most fitted to sustain it 
and the less mobile fingers—particularly the fourth—are 
helped, when it is necessary, by other devices. 

Among these auxiliary devices are particularly two— 
the free action of the hand and the rotation of the 
forearm. Let me suggest means by which these may be 
put into action. 

Raise your forearm easily over the keyboard so that 
the hand hangs down almost vertically from the wrist 
toward the keys. Keep this position for a few seconds, 
until you realize the perfect limpness of the hand. 
Then lower the forearm until the fingers rest quietly on 
the keys: 

Ex. 1 

while the wrist is an inch or so above the level—a 
position which will insure continued freedom of the 
hand. Now throw the hand and forearm from the 
elbow quickly to the right, so that the fifth finger 
strikes D smartly, and the hand is perpendicular above 
it, with the thumb on top. Hold D for a second, and 
then throw the hand quickly to the left, striking G with 
the thumb. The hand should now be perpendicular in 
the opposite direction, over the thumb, so that the 
little finger is uppermost. Rotate again to the right, 
assuming the first position, and continue rotating to 
the left and right for some time, until you can do so 
with the utmost ease. 

Having thus practiced the forearm rotation in its 
most pronounced form, you may apply it to a slow 
trill between the fourth and fifth fingers, rotating to 
right and left as before. 

Similarly play a slow trill with the fourth and third 
fingers on C and B. 

After mastering the rotatory movements in this ex¬ 
aggerated form, the trills may be gradually quickened 
and the amount of rotation decreased until the hand is 
nearly quiet. The principle of rotation should still be 
present, however, and the hand should throughout re¬ 
tain its perfect looseness from the wrist. 

Similar motions should be performed by the left hand, 
and with other pairs of fingers. All these exer¬ 
cises, by the way, may be performed on a table, al¬ 
though I am one of those who believes that a real 
piano is the best medium on which to practice piano 

I do not mean, moreover, that the above exercises 
should supplant those for independence of the fingers, 
such as you suggest. Only do not worry too much 
about making those things equal which were created 

Only by contact with the art of foreign nations does 
the art of a country gain the individual and separate life 
which we call nationality—O scar Wilde. 

It certainly will do you little good to relax before 
playing if you fail to relax while playing. My suspicion 
is that you stiffen up in playing the big chords of the 
first part of the Prelude, and remain so during the 
middle part. 

Let’s see how this will work: Before beginning the 
Prelude, hold both hands above the keyboard so that 
they dangle loosely from the wrist. Then in sounding 
each note or chord, relax the hand and arm instantly 
when the tone is heard retaining only just enough 
pressure to keep the keys down, if the notes are to be 
sustained. It may even be well at first to raise the arm 
above the keys, letting the hand hang loosely again for 
a few seconds after each tone is sounded. Remember 
that the surest way to acquire stiffness is to press hard 
on the keys after they are sounded. Keep relaxed, 
therefore, just as much as possible. 

Now, in tackling the second part, where the right 
hand plays rapid triplets, try this process, practicing at 
first with the right hand alone: 

Lay the hand loosely on the keys, with the upper 
side of hand and arm about level. Now play the notes 
slowly, giving about a second of time to each. In sound¬ 
ing each note, raise the finger—kept firm and curved— 
a little above the key, and, as the finger descends, let the 
wrist-end of the hand jump up so that the following 
position is assumed: Wrist 

The wrist then sinks back to its former position. You 
are now using the hand touch, the essence of which is 
the reaction of the hand against the wrist, as just shown. 

As the speed increases, this reaction becomes less 
evident, so that the upward jump of the wrist is scarcely 
perceptible; but the same condition should prevail, and, 
however rapidly you play, you should have a continual 
sense of freedom at the wrist. 

Let me caution you, too, to beware of forcing the tone. 
Play softly and quietly until you are sure of the loose¬ 
ness of the wrist; and do not at any time play so 
heavily that the wrist stiffens. Do not let any number 
of f’s, double f’s or even triple f’s scare you out of 
that fundamental ease and self-command which is the 
attribute of the true artist. 

Sight Reading Again 

culty in playing third grade music in D and - J 
sharps being left out. Any suggestion a- “*•" 
course to pursue, or what text books to 
be invaluable.—S. K. 

If your pupil studies her regular work with accuracy 
and care, I should not worry too much about her 
sight-reading, which is merely a question of routine 
practice. Give her some standard collection of moder¬ 
ately easy music, such as Kohler’s Sonatina Album or 
Sonatinas, New and Modern (Presser edition, Nos. 49 
and 271). Assign certain pages—perhaps five or six 
for sight-reading each week, and insist on her playing 
a section of these in perfect time, without stopping for 
mistakes, each day. Also, encourage her to read duets, 
and spend a part of each lesson in duet practice. She 
needs daily experience and exercise, just as one dQes 
when learning a foreign language. 

If your pupil disregards the signature, try requiring 
her to draw a circle about each note in a piece that 
would be affected by it. If there are three sharps in 
the signature, for instance, let her circle each F, C, 
and G. In this way she will cultivate the habit of 
paying proper attention to these details. 

College Boys and Music 

s. What can I give them of a tuneful nat 
ou give me some general suggestions a 
o teach boys?—M. T. 

Practical music in a college furnishes many diffi¬ 
cult problems owing to the limited time which can be 
devoted to it, and to its continual conflict with the 
more deeply rooted college studies. I believe that 
there is little use in attempting to teach piano to a 
college student unless he is warmly interested in the 
subject. Even then, it will take much tact and patience 
on your part to keep up his enthusiasm. 

Boys like music that is straightforward in structure 
and of decided rhythm. Marches, minuets, gavottes, 
and the like, come under this’ head—and nocturnes, 
reveries, romances, do not. Emphasize phrase-structure 
and an obvious accent on each first beat. 

Also, boys like to. work out their own problems, 
rather than to follow a teacher’s directions continually. 
Get a boy to work out his own scheme of practice, and 
he will take some interest in it. Problematic music, 
too, often appeals to him, such as Bach’s Little Preludes 
and Fugues and the Fifteen Two-part Inventions. 

Generally, too, boys are much slower than girls in 
acquiring facility of reading and technic. But don’t 
be discouraged, for if a hoy once gets really started, 
he will put a rhythmic pep into his performances that 
will gladden your heart! 

An English Educator’s Material 


n your estimation, is the best wi 

beginners? Do you 
by Matthay? I have 

pianoforte touch, especially t 
recommend Child’s First Steps, b 

become interested in Matthay’s. .. . -- - 

given them some study. In the case of young chil¬ 
dren, to begin with the larger (arm) movements and 
to pass gradually to the smaller (finger) - 

Mr. Matthay is preeminent as a piano pedagogue, 
because he has had the courage to throw overboard the 
traditional lumber of piano teaching, much of which be¬ 
longs properly to a by-gone age, in favor of modern 
scientific principles. He advocates no hard-and-fast 
“method,” but is ready to accept at any time new ideas 
that are founded on a rational basis. 

First in importance, according to his plan, is a careful 
study of the inside of the piano —and especially the 
relation between hammers and strings. As the real 
source of tone, this relation should determine the way 
in which the keys are manipulated. 

Proceeding now to the playing apparatus, he insists 
primarily on the perfect relaxation of hand and arm, 
because any undue muscular stiffness is a distinct detri¬ 
ment to playing, just as though one tried to play with 
a string tied around the fingers. Having secured this 
plasticity, he proceeds to train specifically those muscles 
which are needed in playing. Here he distinguishes 
three principal species of touch: the finger, hand and arm 
touches. The first is produced by the fingers alone, and 
the second by the fingers united to the hand, which is 
thrown from the wrist. There are two divisions of the 
third species: (1) that in which the forearm from the 
elbow is the important factor, and (2), that in which the 
full arm, directed by the shoulder muscles, is employed. 

As an important aid in all these touches, Matthay em¬ 
phasizes the rotation of the forearm, from the elbow- 
one of the most natural of all muscular motions, as is 
evidenced in the old saying, “as easy as turning your 
hand over.” Properly used, this rotation is a valuable 
factor in focusing the muscular activity exactly upon 
its object, and in directing the weight of hand and arm 
to the best purpose. 

Mr. Matthay’s work is distinctly not a beginner’s book 
or instructor, but rather a twenty-one page work, largely 
text devoted to directions for hand shaping, touch, etc., 
and is to be used as a guide with some general method 
or beginner’s book giving the regular educational material. 

Page 238 APRIL 1923 


Do you think you know Beethoven’s 
music well? Look up the word "Mando¬ 
line” in Grove’s Dictionary, and you will 
find a piece written by Beethoven for that 
instrument which you may not have heard 
before. He also wrote an Adagio in E flat 
for the same instrument. This mandolin 
piece, by the way, might make an easy- 
grade violin solo in the first position, ef¬ 
fective as a study piece with an accompani¬ 
ment for piano that is in reach of many 
violin teachers. 

“Concentration” is an essential in all 
music study; but too much even of this is 
not a good thing. We recall to mind the 
case of a remarkable flute-player who de¬ 
voted years to acquiring technical profi¬ 
ciency but finally had to give up the 
instrument just as he was “getting some¬ 
where.” He lavished so much attention 
upon his flute he forgot about his teeth and 
had to have them all pulled out on account 
of pyorrhea. 

Walking along Grant Avenue in San 
Francisco’s Chinatown recently, we came 
on a curio shop which displayed in the win¬ 
dow a leather brass-bound trunk of curious 
design, labeled “Jenny Lind’s hope-chest.” 
It was used by the great singer when she 
passed through the city in ■ the early 

The music of the sad sea-waves is likely 
to have the accompaniment of a bell-quar¬ 
tet in future. Off St. George, Staten 
Island, a new bell-buoy has been anchored. 
The buoy has four bells giving a definite 
chord so that it can be better located by 
fog-bound mariners. The former bell- 
buoys of one bell can be heard but there 
are so many that sound alike that they do 
not identify their locality very well. 

True art ennobles any hall, and earning 
in a decent way for wife and child is no 
disgrace—even for an artist.—R ichard 


Teachers who have pupils of the so- 
called “dangerous age” of adolescence 
ought to be interested in the following 
quotation from Professor G. Stanley 
Hall’s famous book, “The Psychology of 
Adolescence.” It occurs in a chapter on 
the increase of sense-perceptions—hearing, 
seeing, feeling, etc.—which comes as child¬ 
hood is left behind: 

“Music, which may have been cultivated 
much before, now comes to mean unutter¬ 
able things and acquires new interest. 
Very often discords, too, become painful 
to an unutterable degree, and if war, love 
and religion be the three factors that have 
cadenced the soul to the rhythm out of 
which music was born, this is what we 
should expect at this age, when the in- 
greatly reinforced. Most of these new 
stincts which underlie all three are so 
manifestations are transient in those who 
do not develop great musical power, but 
even in these they are often well unfolded 
for a time. 

“Of SS6 young people, Lancaster found 
that 464 had an increased love of music, 
often amounting to a passion, which, how¬ 
ever, soon passed. The curve of this love 
culminates at fifteen and declines rapidly 
after sixteen. In many cases ‘everything 
is given up to music for a year or two, 
and then it is dropped.’ Some imagine 
themselves great musicians and see audi¬ 
ences spell-bound and applauding with' 
waving handkerchiefs. Some purchase in¬ 
struments and take lessons with enthusi¬ 
asm for a while, but the spell soon passes. 
Young children who have been made pain¬ 
fully nervous by music are now filled with 
rapture by it, and are sometimes easily and 
deeply moved to tears. There is a new 
love of rhythm and of melody, a high 
sense of the possibilities of music as a 
means of expression, delight in opera, 

The Musical Scrap Book 

Anything and Everything, as Long as it is Instructive 
and Interesting 

Conducted by A. S. GARBETT 


Following a performance of Saint-Saens' 
Carnaval des Animaux, by the New York 
Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Richard Aldrich 
wrote an erudite article on bird-calls and 
other animal-sounds suggested in music, 
which was published in the New York 
Times. How many such pieces can you 
call to mind ? Omitting the historically re¬ 
mote, here are some of those Mr. Aldrich 
mentions. Are you acquainted with 

Claude Daquin's Coucouf 

id the cock In Bach’s clavier 

. The cuckoo and t 

Pastoral Symphony! 

The cuckoo calls in the s< 
dinck’s Hansel und Gretel! 

ckoo in Mahler’s First Symphony! 
n in Rameau’s La Poule! 

The hen ii_ 

The suggestion of the cock-crow 
tion of The Evangelist’s ' 

E Peter, in Bach's Matthew Pas- 

Strauss’ Salome! 

The trilling nightingale in Couperin’s Le 
Rossignol en Amour! 

The numerous nightingales and other birds in 
Handel's operas and oratorios, including 
Binaldo, IS Allegro, and Joshua! 

The “mysoli” bird (whatever that is), in the 
air Charmant oiseau, from David’s La 

The bird—species unknown—that warbles 
Th^r^rr^cMfSings in Pagli- 

™e ”of ”p r «?if Ltofr symphonic 
The 0 Tack f as t s ha in la Mendelssohn's Midsummer 
The'flock of‘sheep™ Strauss’ Don Quixote! 
The toad and the snake in Wagner s ««■ 
gold, when Alherkh “shows off to Wotan 
and Dope—and of course, Faftier, the dra- 

HnndeVs Israel 

hop and flies that buzz l 

There are of course many others, and 
even Mr. Aldrich omits some famous ones 
■—the lark in Schubert’s Hark! Hark! the 
Lark!', the fiery, fiery horses in Mendels¬ 
sohn’s Elijah ; whole flocks of larks, night- 
ngales and thrushes in our popular ballads; 
the gold fish in one of Debussy’s pieces. 
But the above are enough to go on with. I f 
anybody wants to know about the “mysoli” 
bird in David’s Perle de Brest!, our guess 
is that it is to be found only in the “man- 
zanilla tree,” which flourishes exclusively 
in Meyerbeer’s L’Africaine. 


It must not be forgotten that the oldest 
example of secular part writing is the Eng¬ 
lish Sumer is icumen in, and a lifelong 
search for similar manuscripts on the part 
of Richard Terry—now “Sir” Richard— 
has unearthed many valuable additions, and 
earned the former Doctor Terry, organist 
of Westminster Cathedral (Roman Catho¬ 
lic), his knighthood. His recognition, how¬ 
ever, is in part due to a long-sustained 
friendship with Mr. David Lloyd George, 
the volatile and versatile ex-Premier of 

Writing of this in the London Graphic, 
Mr. Hannen Swaffer tells us that “it was 
twenty years ago, or thereabouts, that Terry 
and Lloyd George first met. Members of 
a house-party in far-away Northumberland, 
they started to talk about church-music and 
the conversation naturally drifted to old 
Welsh hymn tunes, concerning which Terry 
discovered, much to his surprise, David 
Lloyd George was an authority. The old 
Welsh folksongs had died almost like old 
English music, except that they were re¬ 

membered by ear and sung by the people 
on the hills. And Lloyd George, passion¬ 
ately fond of music, and a man with a 
good baritone voice, had remembered from 
his boyhood days all sorts of hymn tunes 
no longer used in the chapels of the towns. 

“So Terry and Lloyd George sang hymns, 
and their friendship was cemented, a 
friendship which went on unbroken despite 
Lloyd George’s rise to fame. Indeed, when 
tired and worn out and needing a change, 
Lloyd George once had Terry as his guest 
at his Welsh home, and there they sang 
Welsh hymns together in the evenings. 

“And Downing Street on many occa¬ 
sions, became a sort of sing-song, where 
Dr. Terry would play while the Premier 
joined in the chorus of old Welsh tunes. 

“But those Downing Street concerts will 
not finish there. For some years now, Mr 
Lloyd George, Sir Walford Davies,’ Sir 
Richard Terry and Sir Henry Hadow’have 
been working on an anthology of church 
hymn tunes which they will publish to¬ 


As everybody knows, Theodor Lesche- 
tizky spent some time in Petrograd, teach¬ 
ing at the Conservatory. Here is an 
amusing experience related in his memoirs: 

“The passport regulations, as everyone 
knows, have always been severe in Russia. 
Now Rubinstein, having no diploma from 
any conservatory, was simply put down as 
‘A. Rubinstein, son of a merchant.’ Strange 
as it may seem, this insignificant circum¬ 
stance had been a serious annoyance to 
the great artist. One day he said to some 
of his friends, professors at the Conserva¬ 
tory : ‘Please look at this abominable thing, 
my passport. Could anything be worse? 
Gentlemen, give me an artist’s certificate.’ 

“Highly amused, we nevertheless pre¬ 
tended to take the matter seriously, and 
informed our world-celebrated comrade 
that if he wanted a certificate he must earn 
it, as others did, by taking the prescribed 
examinations. So we all assembled in the 

’ rtuDinstein, r 
without mock tremulousness, went throu, 
he ordeal. Then, after mature deliber 
tion, we .decided that the certificate shoe 
be awamed, and Dreyschock and I sign 
the document with due pomp and sole, 
mty, presentmg it to our friend.” 

. Rul »nstein’s anxiety about his passne 

herelies™ore?h° d - In his «"» «njj 

enre witB p° a " 0,16 “"P’^sant expe, 
out Of ? US -'f n passp0rt officials arisi, 
™ ^ f Je 'T Ish ancestry and his unreco 
mzed profession of “artist.” T-r„ „ , 

certifi nk / Ul f° f manuscri P‘ s that way-' 
certificate from the official “R ova l c’n 

to7h f -r bab,y l00ked *"°re imp<2 

kn„„„^ 4 ““ *>”• hi * <*' 


Immortality in music comes to so f ew 
of us that it is almost comforting to lear n 
that those who are certain of it have their 
moments of doubt as to its value. Carl 
Goldmark in his “Memoirs.” printed in the 
Vienna “Ncue Freie Presse” and tran s . 
lated for American readers in “The Living 
Age,” gives the following curious anecdote 
of Wagner which illustrates the point: 

“Richard Wagner visited Austria in the 
early sixties to direct his concerts. He 
lived in Penzing, close to Vienna, and I 
lived in the neighboring village, Unter-St. 
Veit. One evening I was strolling through 
the country with a book in my hand. It 
was already dusk. I heard someone calling 
in the distance and saw two men coming 
toward me. I thought they were a trifle 
jolly and sat down on a stone to let them 
pass. When they came closer I recognized 
Richard Wagner with one of my acquaint¬ 
ances. It was Wagner who was making 
all the noise. He objected to the fast time 
in which a chorus in " I .ohengrin" was 
given in the Vienna 11 : m utation, and 
was singing over the part a It should be. 

“After I was Introdim r all went to 
his villa, where he kept * nplaining about 
his' pecuniary distress I dislike 

exceedingly anything that macks of senti¬ 
mental posing, and it was a real sympathy 
which caused me to say : ihit, my honored 
master, do you find no column in the con¬ 
sciousness of your great la , your immor¬ 

“He replied: ‘Ah, what d s that amount 
to? What lias that to <ln with the case? 
Cherubini lay on his death Led and he did 
not like it. He didn't want to die. He 
struggled against it, bewailed his approach¬ 
ing end. When someone v minded Berlioz 
on his death-lied that he would lie immor¬ 
tal, he resented it and exilaimed: ‘None 
of your bad jokes 1’ 

“After that I never tried to console the 
master.” __ 


Singers who travel thousands of miles 
and receive fabulous sums there are some 
who do—may be interested in the follow¬ 
ing account of how they would have pros¬ 
pered in medieval time- a- Minnesingers. 
This account is taken from a fascinating 
volume of Old German Love Songs, by 
F. C. Nicholson. 

“They (the Minnesinger-') led for the 
most part a restless and uncertain life, for 
few of them were fortm r enough to 
secure a permanent position with a wealthy 
patron, and failing that, they were forced 
to travel from one place to another; those 
of the better class on horseback and gen¬ 
erally accompanied by an attendant ; those 
of the lower class on foot. Their principal 
halts would he made at the courts of the 
nobles, where they would he likely to find 
the most sympathetic audiences : indeed, 
as amusements of any kind were scarce in 
those days, a singer of any merit could gen¬ 
erally count on a welcome and would be 
hospitably lodged during his stay. Before 
his departure he would receive a donation 
of more or less value, generally in the 
form of money, jewelry or clothing. 

“Of course, the professional Minnesinger, 
whatever his rank, looked for material 
reward, and, as a rule, demanded it with a 
great deal of insistency; as liberality was 
considered one of the cardinal virtues in 
medieval times, he would have less scruple 
in urging his audience to practice it, and in 
fact such petitioning was taken quite as a 
matter of course and was not looked down 
upon as begging. lie might often, how- 
ev 'er, remain for a considerable time ® 
one place, especially during the winter, 
when traveling was almost impossible and 
when his art would prove doubly 


There is nothing worse than an obstin¬ 
ate adherence to fixed forms.— Richard 


the etude 


APRIL 1923 ■ Rage 239 

Copyright 1923 by Theo. Presser Co. 

British Copyright secured 

Paoe 240 

APRIL 1923 

THE ETUfifi 

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APRIL 1923 

Pag e 241 


A modern Inters in rather free «W/n rhythm. The parallel linen (H) indicate a .light pan., such a. one might make in takingbreath. 
Grade 4. 

British Copyright secured 

Copyright 1923 by Theo. Presser Co. 


Page 242 APRIL 1923 



A showy polka, just right for an opening recital numbe r. 



APRIL 1923 

Page 243 





Page 244 

APRIL 1923 



A, favorite number from the set of waltzes, often heard in recitals in various arrangements, also used for aesthetic dancing. 

M. M. J = 144 


J. BRAHMS, Op. 39, No. 15 

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J. BRAHMS, Op. 39, No. 15 


M.M. J-144 

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5—^4 - 

1 1 26 |[2 1 

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v -+' 0 - 7 a 

3 2 1 

3 ’a'—- 

8 4 3 

Page 246 APRIL 1923 

A well-made and attractive drawing-room piece, such a one as so many 


delight in playing. Grade 2^ 

the etude 



) dteti 

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. 4 JT , 5 . 1 5 4 2 

£ — -"’rafP 

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Copyright 1923 by Theo..Presser Co. 

International Copyright secured 

Copyright 1923 by Theo.Presser Co. 

British Copyright secured 



APRIL 192 3 Page 249 


THOUGHTS AT SUNSET charles jjuerter 

A baritone melody, played almosEentirelyJby the thumUof the righy>and..The legato is obtained by means of the damper pedal. Grade 4. 


molto espress. 

Copyright 1922 by Theo.Presser Co, 

British Copyri^it secured 


rage 250 APRIL 1923 

A good teaching or recital piece (not for dancing,) 



introducinga variety of less conventional 


figures. Grade 3. 

the etude 

APRIL 1923 Page 251 



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Weight and Relaxation Method for the Pianoforte 

By Jacob Eisenberg 

The Musical Observer Says .* „ 

Getting Maximum Results on the Piano with a Minimum of 

Mr. Eisenberg has developed a practical handbook and one that 
nspfnl to students generally. He gives an exposition of the natural method of playing 
the piano which impresses one at once as the right method. Mr. 
explained his subject very lucidly and a knowledge of the principles set forth will be 
a decided advantage to any piano student. — December, 1922. 

The Musical Courier Says : 

Jacob Eisenberg has written a valuable book the title of 
nature of its contents as well as its object. 

It is really difficult to see how the student could go wrong 
stantly available for actual comparison.—November 23, 1922. 

which explains the 
with this guide con- 

The Musician Says : . , 

Simplicity, clarity ami conciseness are characteristics o 
important contribution to tbp ^ e ^ a i ure .^ 

F Weight and Relaxation Method for Jho Pianol 
widespread popularity and intimate r 
cerned in any way with the study 01 

^^fundamentally scientific and free from fadism 01 

orte.' by Jacob Eisenberg. deserves 
.... ... part of all persons who are con- 
mching of the pianoforte. It cannot tail to 


d theory.—January, 

Jacob Eisenberg Publishing Company 

and rilaxation mdthod 


I will pay the postman $1.50 (plus postage) upon its arrnai. t naid ) 

five days and receive my money back immediately. 

Page 252 APRIL 1923 

Why Great Artists Are Choosing Brunswick 

Without exception the internationally acclaimed 
artists of the New Hall of Fame have chosen Bruns¬ 
wick for which to record exclusively a tendency 
so marked in musical circles that Brunswick now 
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great artists of today. 

That is because, by means of exclusive methods of 
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expression. Brunswick Records are known as truest 
reproductions. Adifferencesogreatas to be amazing. 

The Brunswick Phonograph, presenting a method 
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instrument, achieves perfect rendition of the so- 
called “difficult tones,” attaining even Soprano 
High C without slightest mechanical suggestion. 

THE etude 

APRIL 1923 Page 253 

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This offers the master achievements of 
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It is part of a general movement to place 
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It provides a new cultural influence, which, 
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Mechanical suggestion is absent. Tones are 
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In great orchestral reproductions, every in¬ 
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The “Whole 
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The postpaid price of the 
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descriptions and contents of all the books) both interesting and 
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THE etude 


APRIL 1923 

Page 255 


In modern Intermetto style. To be played lightly and gracefully. Grade 3 

Copyright” 1922 by Theo. Presser Co. 

British Copyright secured 


THE ETUDE APRIL 1923 Page 257 

■ * 




A? > 

poco a 


poco string, e cresc. ^_ 

iwr -f(i r ^3=-skrf[ d 

)tt ,-^r ,. ^Tr 

0 ITW^-.i,^ :^i. ^ /r-. 

jp^ Tgf b 

=j| y L P^ = 

n |5 _ 

#.. ^ Ilf 

BeUag ~T. f marc. 

^ T- 

'f ■#■• . 'V !>#•* ^-0-m. r* | , ft 0-m^f 1 ^ 

1 . . 

marc: r 

-r^fi i J**i 7 ^^-' 

^~L'L'— fp 11 n f bU 

r «D vtPLjuja 

lL rL b# i #r" , r#«r lESb L ’T F U L" 

. ff> > ^ a tempo 

». 1 *,hJ „ 1 - U. -EFffP 

j t jut ~ - r.'* w *..• *r-^. ^ ■ --*--1 --taa-i: f 

i i .. j i , i 

A i>». n-v p-^ m.m^ 

L— —. n !t-itU i,g— 

fl 5”^ / ft «‘: ■a.””*.*------.—- 

7 * ■~- = F : F=p=f : p=p=f UP 


; 1 

: *7 i i m J~~n^ 

i I^IW- . 

\grand r ioso< | r K C-J— J 

[W\K CCf-«Bp 

'ilto W-Eu 

El - Ped 


r fiffr Wt 

h crri^^f 

■ir rftf rTrfr- rTTif rh 


r Cjgrr 


L--- 1 Pp.iI si write. 


Page 258 APRIL 1923 




A gay little jig movement, requiring nimble fingers and precision of rhythm. Grade 2 2 


* 3 


• Is y 


y -fcv L 

V n: 


i J 8 

::u, . >ja 

tc ^ J :Jz: 

■f r r $ m 

r r 


j -jgy • J 

- 1 


- i . 4 .., - 

\' y 7 



8 1 V 

4 ^ 1 

-* v m m i 

h 3 j£~ 


- *H f— 
2 1 6 

An elegant little air de ballet in waltz rhythm. Play with singing tone, not too fast, and in free time. Grade 3. 

Copyright 1922 by Theo.Presser Co. 

British Copyright secure ' 1 


An example of the same theme appearing in either hand. Also a useful study inthe minor key. Grade. 2\ 

Allegro m.m. J = 108 

0 ^ A 

3 8 tT 

2 3 4_ a 

3^ ^ 

4 ^ 

4 | 

1 1 1 1 4 










A well-made transcription of the lovely old folk tune. A fine encore number. 





j, poco lento 

a ten 

, _ a ten\ 

ipo _ 

ipo ~ 



t7\ ^~ 0 


; - 

noco lento 




, rit r?\ m f 



International Copyright si 

the etude 

To Mine. AmelitaGalli- Curci 


With accompaniment arranged for solo, as suogby M„e, Amtlita Galli-Curci. 


APRIL 1923 Page 261 

A - bidewith me: fast fallsthee-ven-tide, The dark-ness deep - ens: Lord.withme a - bide: When oth-er 

.I, — j £ , ,fc. 

pointmeto the skies; HeavWs morning breaks,and earth’svainshadows flee: In life, in death,0 Lord a - bide with 

Copyright 1923 by Theo.Presser Co. 

Page 262 APRIL 1923 




ev ry one, 

A - downtheways of life we slow-ly pass, Our days in fruit 

search we feeb-ly spend, Each day we fear will close thebook of life. 

Before we re-al-ize our journey’s end. 

- ns 

Journey’s end, how sweet it sounds,how rest - ful, How glad our hearts at last no more to roam; How light our 

hearts_to find a-round the turn - ing, The gleaming, call-ing hap-pi - ness of home 

Copyright 1923byTheo. Presser Co. 

British Copyright secured 

THE etude 

APRIL 1923 Page 263 

a , mfa tempo -c - 

T - 1— A --K K I . N 1 h h 1 

hd -r-i 

We meet and pass some 

strangers ev-’ry day, 

\W #• 


1 - 


* J f— — ■ 

" 'rail, e dim. 

^ Uf t ==i 

Fj‘1 1 ==t=i 

. ___ ' _ < 

rn*•a w 



H .— b . 

£ 8- 

Page 264 APRIL 1923 
Charles O Roos 

Indian Pipes— little ghost flowers_ standing in the dawn lightalong 
grass-grown,all -but-forgottentrails. Letusbe happy in the Indian Le¬ 
gend and tradition that there are ghost pipes left along the forest ways 
by Phantom Chiefs who return from long Star Trails in the Moon of 
Ginseng Berries to hold Council Talks and smoke the Calurtets. Could 




the soft haze and the dawn-mist that veil the far hills sleeping Under 
Northern skies be other than Ghost smoke from the ghost pipes of the Se 
Chiefs who return from the Happy Land far down ^ Mue-deep of th e 
sky, to walk again the trails that they knew in the Witti- Wasso_ the 
lost time of long yesterdays? 


Con moto 

British Copyright 




APRIL 1923 Page 265 


l Sw - Soft Strings 
1 Gt. - Solo stop 

A tuneful slow movement with an ornate finale. A good recital or picture piece 

Ad lib. 




Gt.Fl. (Trem. ad lib.) 

Co Pyright 1923 by Theo. Presser Co. 

British Copyright secured 

Page 266 APRIL 1923 

TEE etude 

Finger^ Control 

By L. E. Eubanks 

APRIL 1923 Page 267 

To judge by the anatomy of the human finger it ;« w, . ,,. 

hand, observing how the tendons which Beginners learn th^^^ 6 of , , contr ,° l 
control the fingers are “tangled,” we might when thet nlav in th l * ? 

infer that Nature did not plan for any con- Ts the novice Lari, h,v L ° f ? U D > 
siderable mdividual action of the fingers, are required to do the P ^ fel ? to do > th f y 
When the savage grips his bludgeon, when third finger One ofrtL hL Pmg ? 
the frontiersman swings his axe, when third finger controlJ SrP'! 
the sportsman dips an oar, the fingers act the second Z ' ^ 

collectively. It is only when we come to other two remain on the^rtegl Dort 
the more delicate occupations, gqmes and try for great height of lift f t 

arts that independent finger action is often pressure at first Aim to “tfee?the 
"S on a violin or piano depends largely ° y 2 

on this very quality, individual control and brain’s commands promptly. Don’foverdo 
strengdi m the fingers The insistence of When you feel your pier to isolate the 
the third and fourth fingers on working finger's action lessening quit for Se time 
together is one of the obstacles that virtual- The fourth) ^ ^ ^ 

ly every beginner has to overcome. weakest: but on account of its position on 

Dont overdo the training for strength; the hand it readily lends itself to train- 
;t is very easy to stiffen the finger-joints, ing. The old time “stunt” of touching the 
The fingers of the violinist’s left hand have tips of the little and first fingers (or tfying 
to be strong in the first joint (nearest the to) is good to stretch the tendons and help 
end), for stopping. It is quite possible for develop individual control. Also close the 
a person having a generally strong hand, as band, then open out the little finger as far 
measured by his grip, to be comparative- as you can, repeating until it is slightly 
ly weak in these particular joints. They tired. Do this with each one of your 
positively must be strong if the fingers are fingers, being careful to keep the others 
“ stand firmly on the strings, instead of well closed. Do not let any musician or 
• lying down from their tips to the first joint, surgeon persuade you to have a tendon cut- 
Very little experiment in holding the it means serious and unnecessary risk. RaI 
strings down firmly and then loosely will tional exercise will develop normal strength 
show anyone the tonal inferiority of the and control. 

latter method. It is impossible to produce Playing is the best exercise for a mu- 
a perfect tone with a stopping finger that sician’s fingers. Supplemental movements 
falls down or has any rotary action. are of value, since they use the muscles in 
The first or index finger is usually fairly some slightly different positions, and afford 
strong. To the violinist, it is the “anchor” a change of work; but naturally, practice 
of the left hand in the first position. In- of a thing itself is the best training for 
stead of being stuck up into the air, as some that thing. Be certain you are placing the 
players hold it, the first finger should fingers correctly, then practice scales, ar- 
regulate and hold to place the other fingers, peggios, everything that will help you to 
Keep it down, on a string till the music re- gain control of left hand . 

IZZZl „ K° lng thl - S fr ° m L he One of the best ways to prevent the habit 

fn, th f y n ? be PT i n t USing u hlS of raising a finger unnecessarily is to un- 
fourth finger. Ordinarily, the latter when / i • • 

used tends to pull the haiid up the finger- derl “ 6 ^ Passage (playing in the first 
board; but controlling the first finger and P ° S > 6 • ‘ S remam 1 

making it stay down prevents this fault. down J or s l om< ;. tlme > thcn kee P your 
The second finger is nearly twice as th ° u ? ht on ^ Ime : , 
strong as any of the others, and most of us 1 have spoken of the value of stron 2 
have our best control in it. It gives but P ress ure. The accomplished violinist meas- 
little trouble, if the principles of one’s ures pressure “instinctively,” but the novice 
practice are correct. has to make a point of “bearing down,” has 

The third finger is the most troublesome, to attend to it consciously, until his sub- 
Though a little stronger than the little conscious mind “gets the idea.” 

That First Piece 

By Ethel Abbott 

In the teaching of pieces to beginners, little, if any, staccato or portamento or 

several factors should have careful con- pedal, at least in the first grade pieces. 

sideration: The first pieces should inculcate the prin- 

1. The sice of the child’s hand, ciples of Ie S ato touch > melod y Paying and 

2. The flexibility of the child’s hand, s j m f e accompaniment, nothing more. A 

‘ y 1 ’ duet or a sonatina may occasionally be 

,.., The musical development of the used> especially if the child tires of pieces. 

Duets stimulate reading in both clefs. The 

4. The special teaching points in the sonatina opens up the fascinating discus- 
piece, which should be correlated with sion of form and gives the child an oppor- 
the technic or studies, or both. tunity to listen with intelligence to all 

Many teachers feel that if a piece is music he hears, 
easy or simple looking, it is ready to be B is a S°° d P Ian to alternate sharps 
taught to children. Nothing could be fur- with flats, gay pieces with grave 
’her from the truth than this. Good teach- ma i° r with minor, and duple ' 
ln f? Pieces for the Elementary Grades - *- - 

>t plentiful, even now, when the need 
realized, and composers are struggling 
“11 that need. 

What are the points one should look for, 

then studies something in slow tempo with 

mentarv Gr H ? g chords ’ or a piece of the Lullaby type. The 

triple; even, occasionally, legato with stac¬ 
cato. This latter would come in the sec¬ 
ond or the last half of the first year, with 
the brightest pupils only, of course. The 
nimble-fingered child learns poise if he fff 
studies something in slow tempo with 

mentary Grades? 

1. They should be fairly short. 

child with the clumsy hand learns much 
from a piece with jilting rhythmic idea. 

2. They should contain interesting met- such as the HuntingSong type. The child 
ody and harmony, distributed between with apparently little imagination becomes 
[he two hands; or having melody only awakened through the agency of a de- 
m one hand, the accompaniment in the scriptive piece. From this beginning, the 
other hand, simple chords and easy musical perception becomes more acute, and 
stretches, simple rhythms, no octaves, no enjoyment of practice ensues, so that in- 
ar Peggios, no long scale passages, and terest and curiosity do the rest. 

This delightful piano might with justice be 
called a miniature concert grand, for musi¬ 
cally it embodies the advantages of the larger 
grands, and possesses a tone volume and 
range of expression surprisingly broad. 

In no detail has quality been sacrificed 
for size, the 

Ivers & Pond Standards 

being rigidly maintained. Musicians quickly 
recognize the characteristic Ivers & Pond tone 
in the u Princess" > —a tone half a century in 
developing, and easily apparent in every 
Ivers y Pond . 

Write for a catalogue describing all our 
grands, uprights and players; and a paper 
pattern showing how little floor space the 
Princess requires. 

Wherever in the United States we have no dealer, we 
ship direct from the factory. Liberal allowance for old 
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Write us today 

Ivers & Pond Piano Co. 

141 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 

Please mention THE ETUDE when 

Page 268 APRIL 1923 

Getting the Voice Placed 

By J. Vernol Clarke 

This brief article does not pose as a 
learned treatise by an authority nor does 
it seek in any way to lock horns with the 
lords and ladies of the musical world. It 
merely endeavors to give a method em¬ 
ployed by one teacher on one pupil who 
after several years of lessons had still 
neither developed the head-tone nor had 
his voice correctly placed. 

It has long been known, no- doubt, and 
noticed as well by students, that there is 
a strong expulsion of breath through the 
nose when the letter “K” is pronounced. 
There is also a throbbing felt in both the 
inferior and superior maxillary, or upper 
and lower jaw. If the word “kay,” which 
is the letter “K,” is sounded and held in 
the form of humming with the lips parted, 
the throbbing sensation is more distinct. If 
“kay” is said and the lips closed and the 
humming of “kay” continued, it will be 
found that the lips tickle. Many teachers 
have said that when the lips tickle in hhm- 
ming the voice is correctly placed, or at 
least the hum is correctly placed, because 
at first the voice may not follow with the 
hum and stay there, but be inclined to drop 
back again into gutturals and throatiness, 
so common to singers in the early learn¬ 
ing stage. It is this throatiness which 
causes so much hoarseness and throat 
troubles at this stage also. 

Now, if the “kay” is said normally and 
then the lips closed and “kay” said again, 
the throwing forward of the voice is even 
more apparent. It will be hard at first to 
say “kay” with lips closed; at any time it 
will be a sort of a grunt or hum, and an 
explosive one at that—the more explosive, 
the better at first. If “kay” is said natur¬ 
ally at first and then the saying with closed 
lips is tried, it will be easier, however. If 
after the first explosive “kay,” the sound 
is continued in a hum, it will be found that 
the hum will be far clearer than ever be¬ 
fore, also more resonant and musical. In 
time with this exercise the same qualities 
will be imparted with the singing and 
speaking voice. 

Any student of voice who is finding diffi¬ 
culty with voice placing or with attaining 
the proper resonance, would do well to use 
this exercise in addition to the others pro¬ 
vided by the instructor. Practiced faith¬ 
fully it will undoubtedly do the same good 
that it did for the pupil of the teacher men¬ 
tioned in a previous paragraph. In this 
particular case, the exercise brought the 
voice to the proper place, developed splen¬ 
did resonance qualities and is making a 
high operatic baritone out of what was 
formerly a rather half-hearted second-bass. 

The exercise has served to “open” up 
the voice of this man so that whereas be¬ 
fore he reached “E” only with difficulty 
and a straining of muscles and voice, he 
now reaches “G” with ease, and on occa¬ 
sion takes A flat and even “A.” Of course, 
practice is required. Any music student 
knows that and the exercise suggested 
should not displace but only be in addition 
to others given by the instructor. In sing¬ 
ing the scale or exercises, the “K” used in 
place of the other consonants before the 
vowels has also been found a big help 
towards keeping the voice forward. 

Selection of Pieces 

By E. L. Winn 

No teacher should enter the profession 
who has not a wide repertoire. Select 
works of the best composers, not concert 
pieces alone, but pieces intelligible to pu¬ 
pils. It is an offence to art to teach pieces 
too advanced. Many people take up teach¬ 
ing who are not properly qualified I do 
not believe in teaching virtuosi works to 

The Singer’s Etude 

Edited by Vocal Experts 

It is the Ambition of THE ETUDE to Make This Voice Department 
“A Vocalist’s Magazine Complete in Itself ” 

What Is Good Singing? 

By W. J. Henderson 

The following interesting article is printed in pari through the courtesy of “The Outlook." 

If you observe the character of the 
demonstrations made by the audiences 
which attend the operatic performances at 
the Metropolitan Opera House, you will 
probably arrive at the conclusion that the 
essentials of good singing are loudness of 
tone and ability to emit sounds of unusu¬ 
ally acute pitch. Yet it is only a few years 
since thousands hung upon the purely 
musical delivery of Mme. Sembrich, or 
listened with delight to the stream of liquid 
melody from the lips of Mme. Melba. 
And still a little later Carnegie Hall used 
to be crowded whenever the former gave 
one of her incomparable song recitals^ in 
which the highest and lasting ideals of 
good singing were exemplified. For the 
true definition of good singing makes it 
the art of interpreting text by the musical 
tones of the human voice. 

The Need of the Beautiful 

The necessity of interpretation is too 
often forgotten. The need of' beautiful 
tone never is, but the public at times ac¬ 
quire vitiated taste in regard to beauty. 
However, it is conceded that if singing 
is to be good, the tones must be beautiful, 
for the materials of artistic expression 
should always be beautiful. False ideals 
of art often prevail, and we have pictures, 
sculptures, and poems on revolting and 
ugly themes. But the artist’s palette, the 
sculptor’s marble, and the poet’s vocabu¬ 
lary may still retain their native glory. 
You cannot make great statues of mire, 
great pictures with dirty water, nor great 
songs with raucous sounds. So that we 
are brought back to the conception of sing¬ 
ing formed by the early Italian masters of 
the seventeenth century. Their vocal 
ideals were beautiful quality of tones, simi¬ 
larity of quality throughout the range of 
the voice, flawless smoothness and elegance 
in delivery, flexibility and agility, and 
power. These items are enumerated in 
something closely approaching the order 
of their importance. Power is placed last, 
because in all the great periods of vocal 
art it has been the least esteemed of all 
the vocal equipment. 

The translation of sounds into sense re¬ 
quires the use of words, and these must 
go hand in hand with the beautiful tone 
without marring it. Therefore, together 
with tone quality, we need what is loosely 
called among singers, diction. The traits 
of this are perfect pronunciation of the 
vowels, perfect articulation of the con¬ 
sonants, and textual phraseology, or word 
phrasing, which shall bring out fully the 
sense of the words, and at the same time 
not mar the symmetry of the musical 
phrase. Too many singers consider only 
the musical phrase, and, indeed, composers 
often construct their musical phrases so 
that the textual phrase cannot be kept 

When you go to the opera you hear a 
vast amount of ugly tone, sometimes 
shrieking, sometimes growling, sometimes 

almost barking. The plea in extenuation 
is that dramatic utterance demands these 
things. The fact that the passionate elo¬ 
quence of the orchestra never requires 
barks on the trombone, quacks on the clari¬ 
net, or squeals on the violin, does not occur 
to those who make this plea, nor do they 
note the pregnant fact that there is nothing 
on the printed page of the score to indi¬ 
cate the delivery of anything but musical 
tones. The truth is that when we employ 
the human voice as a musical medium it 
must produce only musical tones. Bad tone 
is abnormal. It obtrudes upon the hearer 
a disturbing element; it distracts his atten¬ 
tion from the musical thought to the instru¬ 
ment uttering it. The voice is an instru¬ 
ment of expression. Its office is not to 
draw our attention away from the music 
to itself, either by a parade of skill or by 
deficiency in natural beauty. 

The tones should surround and enwrap 
the hearer in an atmosphere of pure hu¬ 
man influence. This atmosphere is alive 
with the vibrations of a living human in¬ 
strument, acting not only under, but in the 
highest and most glorifying union with, 
human intelligence, emotion and spiritual 
aspiration. It is the living element in sing¬ 
ing, its enfolding of the hearer in the 
actual product of the body and soul of 
the musician, that raises this art above all 
other music in the potency of its influence 
on the listener. 

The Ultimate Object of Technic 

Now, if you should be privileged to sit 
among a company of singers engaged in a 
discussion of their art, you would learn 
that they apparently regard beauty of tone 
as the only desideratum. How to produce 
tones the best way is their endless theme, 
upon which they make a thousand varia¬ 
tions. This is because the ultimate object 
of'all musical technic is the production 
of beautiful, warm, vitalizing tone under 
no matter what difficult conditions. The 
violinist and the pianist seek for such tone 
just as assiduously as the singer. The 
witchery of Paderewski’s piano playing was 
that, no matter how rapid the flight of his 
fingers, he always made the piano sing. 

_ Equality throughout the scale is essen¬ 
tial to the perfection of a beautiful voice. 
It preserves the identity of the organ. A 
clarinet does not at any time sound like 
an oboe. It is all unmistakably clarinet in 
tone from the bottom to the top of its scale. 
The English horn, the contralto of the 
oboe, does not merely extend the oboe scale 
downwards; it has its own characteristic 
quality. It is not a lowered soprano but 
a genuine contralto. A voice should be 
all one voice. Sophia Scalchi, famous 
contralto of forty j/bars ago, rejoiced in 
the possession of four distinct registers or 
qualities of tone. Her celebrity was gained 
by other excellences which triumphed over 
the defects in her scale. Mme. Melba on 
the other hand, had a perfectly equalized 
voice. Its scale was like that of a fine 


Flexibility, in vocal terminology, means 
the power of the voice to increase or 
diminish its force easily and through a 
hundred different degrees. This power is 
the very essence of expression. It is not 
the only means, indeed, but the one with¬ 
out which the others are almost certain to 
fail. It is the twin sister of emphasis in 
reading. It enlivens the rhythm of singing 
by enabling the artist to impart to it an 
endless variety of accent. Also, it is one 
of the features of singing most neglected, 
especially at the opera, where there are 
as a rule two kinds of dynamics, very soft 
and very loud, mostly the latter. When 
Maurel used to sing Iago in Verdi’s 
“Otello,” he always made the deepest im¬ 
pression in the entire opera by his half- 
whispered narration to Otello of Cassio’s 
dream. He did not utter a single loud 
sound, but, singing sotto voce, imparted 
such amazing intensity of expression by 
his subtlety of accent that lie achieved a 
veritable dramatic triumph. How Sem¬ 
brich used to thrill us with the last few 
measures in “Der Nussbaum,’ which she 
murmured in the most delicately accented 
manner. Such singers had acquired a per¬ 
fect flexibility of voice. 

Agility is quite another matter. Its 
meaning is obvious, but its significance not 
rightly understood. It does not necessarily , 
mean the power to deliver passages at an 
astonishing speed. Its greater value lies 
in its gift of the power to utter tones with 
perfect freedom and smoothness. It may 
astonish the reader to learn that a vast 
majority of the public singers of to-day 
cannot correctly sing a simple scale. For 
the matter of that, more than half the pian¬ 
ists cannot play one, except very slowly. 
To sing simple scales fluently anil smoothly 
is one of the fundamental requisites of a 
vocalist’s equipment. But in these days of 
haste, students are unwilling to give suffi¬ 
cient time to purely technical preparation. 

Why We Should Sing the 
Master Songs 

By Nelson Illingworth 

To know is to love the Master Songs. 
And loving, who can not sing them, revel¬ 
ling more in their beautiful joys and con¬ 
solations as our devotion increases? For 
here is the very temple of music, in truth 
—Chamber Music. Chamber, where heart 
may speak to heart in intimate truth. 

I love them because they have meant 
much to me, ah, so much. And being so 
to one, they will be to all. For in what 
are we different ? Under our trappings, all 
hearts beat to the same fundamental rhythm 
of human sympathy. While as Emerson 
so beautifully says, “To believe that which 
is true for you in your private heart is 
true for all men—that is genius.” Have 
not Schubert, Schumann, Franz, Brahms, 
and all the other great hosts of the song 
world made this manifest? In voicing their 
yearnings, hopes and inward state, which 
they as units of the whole felt, they spoke 
for all; and we as part of the whole re¬ 
spond with delight when we do but hear. 

The eternal rhythm of human sympathy, 
expressed by these rare souls, consoles 
their fellow-beings in travail, not alone of 
yesterday, and to-day, but forever. And 
when we would think of this vast wealth 
of expression, this well-nigh sacred pour¬ 
ing out of that which we in our inner 
beings hold dear, by these true democrats 
who would assuage all by communion m 
art; we can but voice our thanksgiving by 
sharing with others less fortunately dis¬ 
posed than ourselves in not already having 
that which we now cherish. 

The Unlimited Wealth of Song , 

And what a wealth is here! As Schuler 
and Beethoven so beautifully say * n , 
Ninth Symphony, “A kiss for all.” hu - 
fillment for whatever need. Schuber , 
with his lofty idealism, glowing with a 

THE etude 

human love that embraces all. Schumann, 
with a more personal yearning, singing 
always in poetic fancy. Franz, ah, one 
would feel that here was the very kernel 
of song; almost a heart within a heart; 
rich and warmly throbbing. Brahms, in his 
sanctuary, gently but ever-leading to a phi¬ 
losophy beautiful and serene. Wolf in surg¬ 
ing emotion, picturing with titanic psychol¬ 
ogy and impetuous fervor, all, from 
faintest breathings to enveloping volumes. 
Grieg, who with such gentle charm leads 
us into realms of dreams and fancies 
wherein all would fain dwell. All, all, for 
all is here. Our every need fulfilled. Could 
art have been more faithfully served? 

The Sustained Flights 

Then think of the wonderful journeyings 
when we are borne away by the exquisite 
song cycle. The most ethereal To the Dis¬ 
tant Beloved, hearing which is to glow 
with delight with this so pure soul. 
Then the lovely Miller Maid. The Swan 
Songs, whose parting heart throbs echo 
in us of this fate so sad and yet so beauti¬ 

ful. The Poet’s Love, with its tender 
yearning and despairing lament. The ex¬ 
quisite and deeply touching humility of the 
Woman s Life and Love. The wild Gypsy 
Songs, with their barbaric rhythm and 
great canvases of emotion. The lovely 
Songs of the Reeds that will forever 
rustle. The Love’s Confession, that pul¬ 
sates to its final acclaim of “Ah, how pleas¬ 
ant tis to love,”, as truly to-day as it did 
nearly three hundred years ago. And that 
veritable avalanche of human emotion, that 
toils in agony of unrequited love through 
!l s . of hell to final resignation, vide, 
1 He Winter Journey. Oh, what a yearn¬ 
ing is here! What a travail! In all art 
is there anything more ineffably sad, and 
covering a wider range of emotion than 
this mighty monument bequeathed to the 
realm of song? 

Ah, this wonderful inheritance of all. 
Let us not be found wanting to seize and 
incorporate it into our lives. Come, that 
we may sing from our hearts these divine 
voicings that are the very manna of life 
and art I 

APRIL 1923 Page 269 

Yodeling in the Alps 

By Amy V. Litteljohn 

One of the peculiarities of this pic¬ 
turesque method of singing is that it 
cracks and ruins the voice for pure singing 
of legitimate music. The constant chang¬ 
ing from chest to head tones and reversing, 
so prettily and skilfully done by the cow¬ 
herds in the various cantons of Switzer¬ 
land, spoils the natural voice and renders 
it incapable of rendering natural song. 

The traveler through Switzerland always 
pauses and listens with delight, however, 
when his path through the hills and moun¬ 
tains takes him near the melodious chant¬ 
ing and humming of the shepherd or 
cowherd who minds his animals on the 
mountain-side while amusing himself with 
a yodeling melody. 

The yodel is never taught, and there is 
no method of learning it. It is no regular 
school of music, and yet a Swiss can im¬ 
provise all day, constantly changing and 
forming new harmonies and melodies as 
his moods change. One of the best yodel- 
ers I have ever heard was a six-ycar-old 
Swiss boy in the French part of Switzer¬ 

The children seem to be born with yodel¬ 
ing voices. Without instruction or teaching 
from anyone, they develop a natural apti¬ 
tude for making harmonious improvisa¬ 
tions. Left alone, they are never lonesome, 
for they keep themselves company by their 

voices. Their ears are their only tuning 
forks, and they pick up the process used 
by their elders without a self-conscious 
attempt to learn it. 

Although .yodelers are found in all the 
Swiss Alps, a considerable number of good 
ones live in the Canton de Berne, the 
Canton de Vaud, in French Switzerland, 
and practically all of German Switzerland. 
The yodeling solo is delightful in itself, 
but when three or four good voices get 
together in one of the little wooden chalets, 
the effect is a marvelous blend and har¬ 
mony, the improvising never conflicting 
with the singing. 

There seem to be no regular syllables for 
yodeling, each singer varying in tune and 
tone according to his natural bent, but all 
in accord and rhythm. Some of the more 
serious patriotic songs of these hard 
mountaineer folk provide in the refrain for 
a measure or two of yodeling at intervals, 
and attempt to indicate the yodel, but there 
appear to be no compositions among these 
mountain folk for yodeling. 

One is somewhat disappointed, however, 
when one of these people attempts a song 
or composition of a more serious nature, 
as the general rule is that the voice breaks 
and cracks and contains many rough spots 
that cannot be smoothed over, due to the 
broken range of the yodel. 

celebrated voice teachers of America who will conduct departments in future issues. 
These eminent men and women, any one of whom charges for one lesson, more than 
three times the annual subscription cost of THE ETUDE, have promised en¬ 
tirely fresh and stimulating material. 

advance of publication offer 


Sacred Song Albums 

For High and Low Voices 

We will issue two volumes of sacred 
solos, one for high and the other for low 
voice. They will be suitable for the aver- 
a ge choir soloist. None of the selections 
have ever appeared in any similar volume 
so there is no risk in ordering one of these 
oo°ks in advance. Our advance price for 
dlher the high or low voice volume is 35c 

Advance of Publication cash price, 35c. each 



We will issue shortly four volumes of ora¬ 
torio songs, one for each of the four voices, 
soprano, alto, tenor and bass. They will 
contain the best only and will be edited by 
a leading authority for each voice. The 
volumes will not be large nor expensive, but 
will include a number of arias that have 
never yet appeared in similar volumes. The 
late David Bispham was to have been the 
editor, but we will now have a special editor 
for each volume. Every singer should pos¬ 
sess one of these volumes. They may be 
ordered singly, each 50c postpaid if ordered 
in advance of publication. 

Advance of Publication, cash price, 50c. each 

J&ORE PRESSER CO., Philadelphia 

L Publishers and Dealers,1710-12-14 Chestnut St 

THEODORE PRESSER CO., Philadelphia 1 

Music Publishers and Dealers, 1710-12-14 Chestnut St. 


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Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing our advertisers. 


Page 270 APRIL 1928 


As a means of contributing to the development ol ,Merest in opera, Jor 
many years Mr. James Francis Cooke, editor of "T he Etude has prepared, 
gratuitously, program notes lor the production given in Philadelphia by The 
Metropolitan Opera Company of New York. T.iese I 

Metropolitan uperu - - 

extensively in programs and periodicals at home and abroad. Believing that 
our readers may have a desire to be refreshed or informed upon certain 
aspects of the popular grand operas, these historical and interpretative notes 
on several of them will be reproduced in “The Etude.” The opera stories 
have been written by Edward Ellsworth Hipsher , assistant editor. 

Wagner’s “ Parsifal ” 


Teacher of Singing 



A text-book for teacher and pupil 


No book of recent years has received more enthusiastic comment from the 
greatest teachers of the country. Both of the above are among the most 
widely-used books by an American author. 

~L CLIPPINGER'S w„u. s .a 

it produced without effort ? The 

rt throughout the compass. 

m the HEAD VOICE hi 

is brought to him singers from all part 
In the training of TEACHERS his w 

SUMMER TERM Five weeks, beginning June 25th 

D. A. CLIPPINGER 617-18 Kimball Hall 

Chicago, Ill. 




LoveJSong of Old ] 

Among others featuring this charming song are ORVILLE HARROLD, 

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in Two-part Choral Form and Orchestra 


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The average music lover, in thinking of 
the works of Richard Wagner, assumes 
that his “Parsifal," produced at the age of 
sixty-nine, as the last of a long series of 
magnificent contributions to musical dra¬ 
matic art, is consequently his greatest 
musical work. Musicians, however, will 
never be able to settle the matter in their 
own minds, some contending for “The 
Mastersingers of Nuremburg,” others for 
“Tristan und Isolde,” others for “Die Wal- 
kiire,” and still others for “Lohengrin” 
and “Tannhauser,” because of the wonder¬ 
fully exuberant melodies of the youthful 
Wagner, thrilled with the first glorious 
steps in his great artistic adventure. 

The marvel of “Parsifal” is that, not¬ 
withstanding the fact that the composer 
was verging upon the Biblical three-score 
years and ten, the work shows astonishing 
virility, as well as maturity. Like Verdi’s 
“Falstaff,” produced when • the composer 
was eighty, there are innumerable passages 
which have all the spirit and spontaneity 
of young manhood. 

“Parsifal,” called by the composer a 
Biihenweihfestspiel (Dedicatory Festival 
Play), was written for Wagner’s crown¬ 
ing achievement, the Festival Theater, at 
Beyreuth. The poem itself, a work of 
notable literary importance and epic di¬ 
mensions, was first published in 1877. The 
music was not completed until 1879, and 
the first performance took place before a 
notable assemblage of prominent men of 
art, science and letters, as well as the cus¬ 
tomary royal ornaments, on July 28, 1882. 
For twenty-one years the work was con¬ 
fined to the stage of that theater, save for 
the fact that it was given in concert form 

at Albert Hall, in London, in 1884, and, if 
the writer remembers correctly, in a simi¬ 
lar manner a few years later under the 
baton of Wagner’s disciple, Anton Seidl, 
at the Brooklyn Academy of Music. 

In 1903, however, the Beyreuth spell 
was broken by performances Riven at the 
Metropolitan Opera House in New York 
City, greatly to the consternation of the 
Wagner heirs, who had found in “Parsi¬ 
fal” a tremendous drawing card. Since 
then the work has been done in many 
music centers, the latest of which was 
Madrid, where the conductor, if we are 
not mistaken, was Karl Muck. 

At the original performance Kundry 
was done by Materna and Parsifal by 
Winkelmann. At the first American per¬ 
formance, Kundry was sung by Ternina, 
Parsifal by Burgstaller, Gurnemans by 
Blass and A mfor las by Van Rooy. 

Shortly after the American perform¬ 
ances, Henry W. Savage produced a ver¬ 
sion which he sent upon tour. This was 
slightly shortened, but was notable for its 
general excellence. 

Wagner’s version of the beautiful legend 
of the Holy Grail and the Grail Knights, 
sworn to the protection and adoration of 
the Cup from which Christ drank at the 
Last Supper, is based largely upon the me¬ 
diaeval poem of Wolfram von Eschenbach, 
believed to have been written about 1300. 
Wagner’s love for this legend really dates 
from Tannhauser, where it is first sug¬ 
gested in his works. Indeed, as early as 
1857 he began sketches for this work, 
which did not acutally reach public per- 
formance until a quarter of a century later. 

The Story of “ Parsifal ” 

it which “Parsifal" 

is perhaps tl 

r Monsalva 


ran knight, 



£>y tbryccjon Treharne. 

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Our Best Selling ballad! Already in it j Pijtb Edition 


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n THE ETUDE when addressing onr advertisers. 

The legend of The Holy Grai 
beautiful of those of ancient lore. 

Act I, Scene I—A Forest nea 
novices sleep. A trumpet calls the... 
wound. Kundry enters with a l-emedv sniiehtM 

fromX^b" Mem . 

struck with the'idea e thaTthis l }’outh 1 might he” 

be the medium of Amfortas’ regeneration Vi . fuUelcss (mil who u nas . . »» 

is produced by moving scenery so that thei J,’,,, f S10n ? f the Journey to tin- Castle lU- 
gallery ascending to the Castle Thl.w to |wss through a forest and into a covered 

reuth. astR ' Thls “gemous and effective device was first used at Bay- 

Scene II —The Castle Hall ,1 1, 

Am/orfos is brought in on a eouelfto conduct the W ?, the 1Io, - v Grail ar0 in 
light streams down on the Grail The n ■ these, while Pnrsijal stands fascinated as a 
wine, aU file out. i t cov< ’ r <’<i and after partaking of the bread and 

impatiently thrusts Parsijal out of the tfeW| ' 

th a et° ga^M"?" 8 °" K ' w, " v ,Mnpt T 

triumphs. Fearing his escape, KUnaf or ?’, try the,r ch nrms. Parsifal withstands 

to a desert, the maidens 


apparentlyhfeles^and rmlro^Lr ear p Mon , sa,v!| t- Gumemnnz finds Kundry in a thicket 

neTdT m Thev US P ™ ° f '„,° ntcr \ in lhe armor of the Grail knights. 
Am^nAnT Pap ? r ? t0 visit Am/orto. Th. th e CastR ’ and Sundry ministers to Pars>fal» 
Am/ortag is carried in and healed » cen e changes to the Temnle of the Grai - 

Amfortn*Z t0 vi8it Amloriai The „ , and Sundry ministers to Por*«/« 

glows, a halo of light descends, C whiled dVe" htefs £ .^V**^*irFSSd? The G»i 

uove novers over PartijaVt head as all do him homag« 


New Records 

Just from the Laboratory 

By Horace Johnson 

Three years seems no very long time it sympathetically, playing quietly and 
to have been reviewing records. Yet, evenly, with a phrase here andlhere of 
because of the tremendous strides that true, clear harmonics the tones of which 
have been made toward perfecting the have registered exceptionally well If 
mechanics and techmc of phonographic you find pleasure in music which breathes 
reproduction, one feels as if he had of lavender and old lace, powdered wigs 
been hearing new records each month and miniatures, here is a proper intro- 
for several decades when he listens to duction. 

some of the records which were reviewed The Jeritza reproduction is the famous 
at the start. As each new list of discs aria Dich Teure 'Halle (Oh Hall of 
is released I expect to be interested, and Song) from Wagner’s Tannhauser Mine 
possibly a trifle bored as every one is Jeritza’s voice though light and almost 
with routine work. But on each monthly effervescent in quality—a tone not asso- 
trip from laboratory to laboratory, I find ciated with the accustomed thought for 
at least one record which stimulates and Wagnerian roles—has formed a good 
revivifies every drop of normal, musical impression on the round black plate Her 
emotion and appreciation. shading is exquisite, and, with a fine 

Such a record is the new reproduction orchestral accompaniment assisting her 
which Mario Chamlee has made for the ably, she sings to a brilliant climax 
Brunswick of Chanson Revc from Mas- registering a clear, bell-like yet powerful 
senet’s Manon. To be sure, this remark- high note as a worthy finish to her infer¬ 
ably beautiful lyric aria is numbered pretation. 

among my favorite compositions, and For some time there have been requests 
thert is every reason to believe that I for a sacred John McCormack record, so 
was prejudiced in Mr. Chamlee’s favor Mr. McCormack has sung for the current 
even front the moment the disc was picked bulletin a record entitled Jesus My Lord 
up to be placed on the phonograph. At My God, My All, As usual, he leaves’ 
any rate, this reproduction was labelled nothing to be desired. He sings with true 
one hundred and an eight per cent because spiritual reverence, with superb diction 
because it was enjoyed so thoroughly; and exquisite phrasing. If you need a 
and there will lie many like me. One new sacred record for your library, there 
excellent achievement that Mr. Chamlee’s is no use for you to look further for you 
and Mr. Brunswick’s accompanying aggre- will not find a better reproduction than 
gation of musicians have attained is the this. 

truly ethereal and dream-like quality Another of our well-known tenors 

which permeates the music which Massenet Charles Hackett, sings a record of inter- 
wrote in this work. It is impossible not est this month. It is a Columbia produc- 
toget this suggestion when listening and tion and the selection is Geoffrey O’Hara’s 
watching a performance of the opera, but The Living God. Mr. O’Hara seems to 
robbed of its scenic setting and stripped spend most of his time between life and 
of its optic appeal, the creators of this death and in a most dramatic fashion, 
reproduction have accomplished a great Perhaps you will remember his song, 
deal. There Is No Death, which was most 

On the same Brunswick list there popular three years ago. This composition 
appears an instrumental trio selection, the > s a song of the same vein. It has a 
Serenade, of Tschaikowsky played by the most dramatic and expulsive climax which 
Elschuco Trio. To all of you who thor- Mr- Hackett sings with fine tone and all 
oughly enjoy chamber music this record power. As a record it is well made, 
will be most attractive. Tschaikowsky technically and musically, 
was the greatest of all composers in Eddy Brown plays Kreisler’s piquant 
writing for string instruments and as a little melody Schon Rosmarin for the 
proof I point to the String Quartet of April Columbia publications. He has 
which the Andante Can labile is the best flooded it with sunshine and happiness 
known movement, the famous Trio, which and created a true expression of the joy 
is regarded by most musicians as the of being alive. If y° u ar e tired and blue 
highest type of writing of its kind and and discouraged there is no better Coue 
the popular Fifth Symphony. cure than a 9u ; et listening to Mr. Brown 

This Serenade which the Elschuco Trio playing Kreisler’s tune. 

Play is one of the smaller and less pre- Tandy MacKenzie, a recent acquisition 
tentious compositions of Tschaikowsky to the Columbia roster of artists, delights 
but is overflowing with haunting melodic his hearers with an extraordinarily splen- 
themes which give you the keenest pleas- did performance of. Ah, Moon of My 
ure. The artists have played with pre- Delight from Liza Lehmann’s “In A 
cision, fine shading and in excellent Persian Garden.” Mr. MacKenzie has a 
balance, with accurate tempi readings. lyric tenor voice which he uses with con- 

Fiddle and I. a ballad of thirty years summate skill. At times it Has a striking 
ago, is also present on the Brunswick likeness to Mr. McCormack, yet it is 
April' list. Elizabeth Lennox sings it individual and truly pleasing. In the selec- 
simply and effectively with splendid enun- tion Mr. MacKenzie sings there is much 
nation and fine tone. The melody is melodic beauty and many haunting phrases 
typical of the era of American music of which he sings most sympathetically, 
die time of its composition, but all of you The Edison has. issued recently a good 
who knew the song in the heyday of its hand selection which the National Prom' 
Popularity will enjoy it tremendously, for enade Band has made of Daughter of Love 
Miss Lennox has accomplished a good Walts. It is played in strict time for 
reproduction. dancing and would be splendid for out- 

The Victor -list offers many excellent doors because of its carrying qualities. It 
discs to phonograph enthusiasts. Among is melodic and interesting, reminiscent 
a p numbers issued are selections by in theme of Johann Strauss and his famous 
'scha Elman, Maria Jeritza and John Blue Danube series. 
oLormick. As a complement Eleanora de Cisneros 

Mr. Elman plays a Walts in A Major, sings the Juanita, the words by Mrs. 
' co topOsfti°f! written in the quaint lace- Norton, of England, to an old Spanish 
_ ' e , harmonies of nearly a century ago. melody, for the same list. Ha - v™<-» ,'o 

So like a 

l 1 minuet is it in construction that big and powerful and full of fire. She 
tQ Wot] dered how the composer happened sings with a lazy, seductive feeling which 
nanie 't a waltz. Mr. Elman interprets is delightful and interesting. 

APRIL 1923 Page 271 

Preserve your Art 




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tionists will find Gennett Records (Personal Record¬ 
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Our recording laboratories are in New York and 
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"The Difference is in the Tone ” 

mention THE ETUDE when addressing 


Page 272 APRIL 1923 

D URING the last twenty years there has 
been a. decided and rapid widening of 
the field for the professional organist. 
Until the latter part of the last century 
the use of the organ was practically con¬ 
fined to the Church, except for its use in 
the Concert Halls of England, in the 
Trocadero in Paris, and a few instances 
in our own country, such as the Cincin¬ 
nati Music Hall, the Boston Music Hall, 
the Auditorium, Chicago and the Drexel 
Institute, Philadelphia. There were doubt¬ 
less some additional instances in this and 
other countries, where the organ was used 
outside of Churches, but those mentioned 
include the more important ones. 

Since the beginning of the present cen¬ 
tury the growth of the field has been 
remarkable, and we now have organs in 
Municipal Halls 
Industrial Plants 

Fine Homes 


The Organist’s Etude 

It Is the Ambition of THE BTUDB to make this Organ Department 
“An Organist's Magazine Complete in Itself” 

Edited for April by HENRY S. FRY 

The Organist’s Rapidly Widening Field 

Auditorium, Cleveland, Ohio, 5 m „„, , 
Skinner, 143 stops. ’ 0 ma >>ual 8 , 

•High School, Atlantic City, N T a 
uals, Mirim or, 133 stops. ' ’’ a m »n- 

Auditorium, San Francisco, Cal 4 
uals. Austin, 121 stops. ’ ’ 4 “an- 

Macky Auditorium, Unlv. 0f Color-, 
Boulder, Colorado, 4 manuals, Austin, 1x5 

Carnegie Music nail, Pittsburgh p„ 
manuals, Skinner, 102 stops. ’ a -, 4 

Eastman School of Music, Rochester Nr v 
4 manuals, Skinner, 94 stops. ’ *•> 

Sk^92 m dtops: P “ UI> Mi,m " 4 “ a ««als, 
City Hall Auditorium, Portland, Maine 4 
manuals, Austin, 91 stops. 4 

Memorial Hall, Pueblo, Colorado 4 
uals, Austin, 88 stops. ’ an ' 

Music-Hall, Cincinnati, Ohio, 4 manuals 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y 4 nin , 
uals, Stecre, 79 stops. ” n ‘ 

Municipal Auditorium, Springfield Mas- 
4 manuals, Steere, 79 stops. ’ 

Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Memorial Buildine 
's. Austin 78 

form. The theater organist must have a Good judgment in the making of a pro¬ 
keen sense of situations that may arise, so gram is always necessary. An instance 
that the music may fit the picture as a of this came to the notice of the writer 
background. He must not detract from recently, where a well-known organist at 
the picture by the playing but enhance its the opening of a new organ in a church, 
all providing opportunity for the engage- effect by causing the audience to associate presented to a miscellaneous audience a 
ment of competent organists to bring forth the music with the picture, but not be con- long program, about two hours, which 
their message of musical inspiration and scious of it. The theater organist should included three numbers by Cesar Franck, 
beauty. be of a disposition that will enable him a Bach number, and two movements from 

The theater, of course, has been the to be ready to receive suggestions from Organ Symphonies, with several other 
greatest factor in this development and the management. Many times the man- selections. Except for its length this pro- 
has made, perhaps, the most exacting agers are unfit, through their lack of gram would have been ideal for an audi- 
demands on the ability of the organist, musical taste and knowledge, to give ence or organists but was entirely 
Being equipped either as a Church or directions; but when they are capable unsuited to a congregation that had come 
concert organist only, will not satisfac- they may, perhaps, sense the pulse of the to hear the new organ, and were not pre- 
torily supply the demands made on the audience more readily than the organist, pared to digest so heavy a program. The 
theater organist. In addition to facile though peculiarly enough an organist can concert organist should also possess the 
technic, interpretative ability and indi- sometimes “feel” whether his efforts are ability to adapt music written for other 
viduality of style, the successful theater “going over.” instruments, to the organ, in such a manner 

organist must be able to improvise, to These suggestions are probably suffi- as to make it effective on the program, 

modulate skillfully, and to memorize, if cientto point out the heavy demands made The writer is not at all in accord with 
he wishes to reach the highest point in on the theater organist. For those who those who would limit the organ to the 
that career. Unfortunately, many of the wish to play the organ and cannot, for use of compositions originally written for 
theater organists have not first learned some reason, place themselves in charge that instrument. Let such as need be 
to “play the organ.” They begin to “play of a competent teacher, the writer would convinced hear The Afternoon of a Faun 
on the organ,” using what piano tech- suggest the purchase of one of the modern (Debussy) played by Courboin, or the 
nic they have acquired and adding to that editions of “The Organ” by Stainer, and Midsummer Night’s Dream Overture, 
an effort to swing the left foot to and fro, the practice of various exercises contained (Mendelssohn) or Marche Slav (Tschaik- 
hither and thither over the lower octave in that work, in the following order: owsky) played by Maitland, 

of the pedal board, while the right foot „ , The requirements for the concertorgan- 

frantically “pumps” the swell or crescendo usln g ‘both feet, without lookiu^afthe^eer 8 ’ ist cover Poetically what is necessary for 
pedal. This type has been very aptly Practice crossing one foot back of the other organ-playing in industrial plants, stores 

described by one of our fine theater Practfc" of SSnEd and fine homes; though in such places an 

organists as Mrs. Ebeneezer Left-leg. exercises given. added familiarity with music of the 

To be a successful theater organist of ei ™“for'two'uahTtingle"noTe^to each H S hter ^ “light also be advisable. 

,A WWeot t™. m 1...-. .. th ’ at department of the To give the reader some idea of the 

left hand and feet g . rea4 field . we „ ha y e been talking about, 

Melrose, Mass., 4 manuals, Austin, 7s 
Temple Auditorium, Los Angeles t'ul 4 
manuals, Austin, 78 stops. ’’ 4 

Auditorium Armory, Atlanta, Ga., 4 man¬ 
uals, Austin, 77 stops. 

Biildwin-Wallace College, Berea, Ohio 4 
manuals, Austin, 74 stops. ’ 

College of the City of New York, 4 manuals 
Skinner, 70 stops. manuals, 

Convention Hall, Buffalo, N. Y., Emnion 
♦Not yet installed. 

••Originally built by the Los Angeles Art 
Organ Co.—enlarged by the Wanamaker Or 
gap Shop. 

•••Not yet completed. 


Medlnah, Chicago, Ill., 5 manuals, Austin 
92 stops. 

Rajah, Reading, Pa., 4 
66 stops. 

Cleveland, Ohio, 4 nun 

Open-air Oat 
Balboa Park, Sau Diego, 

Austin, 62 stops. 

Greek Amphitheatre, tin 
Iottesville, Va., manuals, 

Bohemian Grow, Colii. 

Austin, 28 stops. 

manuals, Austin, 
uals, Austin, 52 

the highest type (not the sensational, 
chord scooping Jazz Artist) requires good 
piano technic, supplemented by a course 
in the technic of organ-playing under a 
teacher of the legitimate organ-playing 
school—including the use of both feet 

Practice e. __ „„ , 

ind for right hand and feet. 

--.... the following list from one organ-builder 

form—usin^confrastmg a stops a on each will ,. show “ some measure the variety of 
that the moving v 

nstmcti h conditions under which the organ 

After y the practice of these exercises has SOme tbem ver 7 uncommon: 

'“"" U - - - dependence of Theatprs 

scales on the J™ 8 

3 used 

. 60 Hotels. 

Masonic.36 Institutions . 

Residence .29 Insurance Bldgs... 

1 and their locations: 

Industbial Establish- 

playing the pedals, gaining independence brought about the desired 'independence of 
of hands and feet, use of. stops, swell J” 1 "' 1 . 8 and |®et, practice of the ’ 

j < • r . 4, . 1 £ , . pedals is desirable, which ma’ 

pedals, in fact, a complete mastery of the mented by Nillsen’s Pedal Studl 

physical or technical resources of the in- technic. .rx "“*»•— 

v in , , , , • , While the student is thus acquiring organ Municipal .12 Open-air Theaters.. 

strument. When the student has acquired technic, so far as hands and feet Me con- Stores . 8 Odd Fellows. a 

the technic of organ-playing his work can ce ™« ! , works should bo studied covering „ 

be adapted to theater use, either through ffikftXSf*; someM a oTth! f” give 

his own ability to so adjust it, or by coach- "’<=11 as recommended books on picture fw , “ . f th . sc ? pe of the instruments 

ing with a theater organist of the' highest Eylng ’ * at haye b , een “stalled in buildings other 

type. Of course the highest type theater Of course, it is understood that these C U * C ° Ut a !?° may serve as a 

organist usually has the ability to give the suggestions are made for those who do per . m “ reference list of large organs 
technical training necessary, as well as not have the opportunity to study with 

the adaptation of the organ-playing prin- a teacher. It is always more satisfactory Mercantile. 

ciples to theater work. Added to this if the student has the benefit of a critical T 

equipment the student should acquire the hearing of his work by a careful instructor manual^ Aultta“2®3 U s& Mr’cmthlv 
theoretical knowledge necessary to modu- For the concert organist or the munic- • th5°™|an ha^ta t hange of p,nns 
late, and if possible, to improvise. The ipal organist, whose duties consist of P° sed Victory Hall in°Philadelphia 6 DeW pr °" 
latter requires lengthy and dose study and giving recitals only, the requirements are manuals’ 1 s * ore - Philadelphia, 5 

practice for reaching success; and, if the not so great. Here the ability to impro- L ° S A “ geles Art 0r ««" Co., 232 

student does not have some natural abil- vise and modulate, while desirable, are not Stor f: New York > 4 inan¬ 
ity or the time for sufficient study of the absolutely necessary; and, while it is not „ H’otel Art^New Imk?^^nual^Tmtin 

subject, it will be far better to limit the essential to memorize, to be able to “forego Grovc>,n,- t an 

work to set compositions, using such the notes” probably is a help to freedom uals, Skinner, 53 nn 8 tops ’ •’ N- C ” 4 man - 

excerpts as will fit the situations. ’ to interpretation. The concert organist , n ^ a nmi a Y ;ash Register School House, Day- 

Very few can hope to attain'such mar- requires an ample brilliant technic, hands Maryland Casualty urn , 

velous ability as has been shown in. and feet, a keen sense of tone color, and ma j? pa I s i S d e «ho, Austin, 3 (i stops. ’ 

the wonderful improvisations of Marcel the ability to make changes in registration uals Austin,® 25 st°ops PlttSbUrgh ’ Pa ” 3 man - 

Dupre, the noted French organist, recently without halting the rhythm. The concert nn“S op ™l tan *r.J? fe insurance Sanatori 
appearing in this country, or the late .organist must possess sufficient general lustm,’ ifsto^s ® 8 "’ N ’ Y ” 2 
Alexandre Guilmant, another noted organ- musicianship to make possible the arrange- 
ist of that country. Another important ment of a satisfactory program, suitable 
requirement for the theater organist is to the occasion, and to give an intelligent, 
the ability to adapt piano music, orchestral warm, and sane interpretation of the 

or other music to the organ, in such a master-pieces chosen to present 

manner that it will be effective in its new audience. 

1, 12 stops. 

_ f „ scHo^r^c. AumT0RiDMs ' 
™“S„?-H 0 ‘.^“i|s EOClie6ter ’ N ’ 


Theater Organs 

Although many large organs are in¬ 
stalled in theaters, a large proportion, per¬ 
haps, are built on either the Duplex or the 
Unit Plan, and we will not attempt to give 
a tabulated list of these instruments, but 
mention a few of the well-known ones, 
such as The Stanley, Philadelphia (Kim¬ 
ball) ; The Palace, Philadelphia (Kim¬ 
ball) ; The Aldine, Philadelphia (Moller) ; 
The Capitol, New York (Estey); The 
Rivoli, New York (Austin) : The Stan¬ 
ton, Philadelphia (Austin); The Rialto, 
New York (Wurlitzer); The Roosevelt, 
Chicago (Kimball) ; The Allen, Cleve¬ 
land (Kimball); The Senate, Chicago 
(Wurlitzer); State Theatre, Jersey City 
(Moller); The Olympia, New Haven 
(Steere); Gordon’s Capitol. Boston (Skin¬ 
ner) ;—not yet installed—Germantown, 
Philadelphia (Wurlitzer), and many others. 
The mention of Duplex Action recalls the 
story of an employe of a well-known 
organ builder, who does not approve of 
Duplex Action (the use of one set of pipes 
on two different manuals). The firm that 
he served were furnishing an organ of 
three manuals, the Choir organ consisting 
of several duplexed stops and a Clarinet. 
The employe on noticing it said of the 
third manual—“darn thieving—a keyboard 
and a Clarinet.” 

Residence Organs 

Throughout the country are scattered 
many fine organs in homes of men whose 
names are known throughout the world 
such men as Cyrus H. K. Curtis (who not 
only has a fine large Aeolian organ in his 
home, but also was the donor of the large 
instrument installed in the City Hall Audi¬ 
torium, Portland, Maine, and is the pur¬ 
chaser of the very large organ heading the 
list of instruments in Mercantile and In¬ 
dustrial Establishments); P. S. duPont 
(Aeolian) ; Senator W. A. Clark (Murray 
Harris Co.) • Charles M, Schwab 
(Aeolian); Henry Ford (Estey) ; William 
L. Austin (Aeolian) ; W. C. Runyon (Aus¬ 
tin) ; C. P. Hagenlocher (Austin) ; Wm. 
Chattin Wetherill (Austin) ; Frederick W- 
Schmidt (Aeolian) ; George Eastman 
(Aeolian) ; John T. Austin (Austin) 1 Ar¬ 
thur Hudson Marks (Skinner), and many 

tee ETUDE 

APRIL 1923 Page 273 


•rx product of experience and of factory 
equipment and organization. The 
Krakauer has enjoyed more than a half 
century of quality production. It is 
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ized in equipment and practice and by- 
artisans who count their experience with 
the house of Krakauer by decades. 

Catalog on Request 


PROOF of the invariable aualitv. tonal 


I 165 Wood la 

m the list of 1922 3 _| 

an area of twenty-nine state*. 

of which came through the 
:l confidence inspired by the 
of formerly built organ*, 
stin Organ, small or large, is it- 
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rhere is nothing finer than a fine 
nd whether a small two-manual 
itic four-manual, the structural 


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An unusual organ installation is that of 
a fine four-manual Aeolian organ in a 
greenhouse in the beautiful gardens at 

Longwood,” the magnificent estate of Mr. 
and Mrs. P. S. duPont, near Wilmington, 
Del. A few words about the organ activi¬ 
ties at “Longwood” may be of interest, 
the gardens and greenhouses are open to 
the public from eleven until six o’clock all 
week-days, holidays, Saturdays and the 
first and third Sundays of every month. 
There is a small fee of twenty-five cents 
charged on Saturdays and Sundays, which 
is turned over to any hospital in Wilming¬ 
ton or West Chester, designated by the vis¬ 
itor. No admission charge is made on 
other days. For the past year two-hour 
organ recitals have been given every Sun¬ 
day afternoon, and these are open to the 
public the first and third Sundays of each 
month, at no additional admission charge. 
The Sunday attendance has averaged 
around one thousand, and has even reached 
the twenty-eight hundred mark. In this in¬ 
stance not only do these activities give op¬ 
portunity for engagements to organists 
(different organists appear), but result in 
a magnificent offering to hospitals through 
the large amount paid by visitors for ad¬ 

Radio Broadcasting and the Organ 

Another and newer element that has 
added to the organist’s opportunities is the 
wide use of radio broadcasting. Here the 
organist is not only benefited by the 
opportunity for engagements, but also by 
the large amount of publicity given as a 
result of the immense audience “listening 
in” not only from nearby points, but also 
at far distant ones. Already the largest 
organ in the world (in the Wanamaker 
store, Philadelphia), is being broadcasted, 
which is true also of the organs in Kim¬ 
ball Hall, Chicago, the Estey Studios in 
New York city, Carnegie Hall, Pittsburgh, 
numerous churches and the home of Dr. 
Herbert J. Tily, near Philadelphia, which 
is broadcasted through the mercantile 
establishment of Strawbridge & Clothier, 
Philadelphia, of which Dr. Tily is an exec- 

We quote from an editorial in the Febru¬ 
ary, 1923, Etude —“Radio has torn down 
the walls of the concert hall and admitted 
the multitude. The pianist can play to a 
hundred thousand now, instead of to five 
thousand. Every time he plays there are 
hundreds listening who would like to play 
as well, who will employ teachers to teach 
them.” We quote also from an editorial in 
the January, 1923, issue of The Diapason — 
“We may be wrong, but it seems to us 
from a close survey of the news of the 
organ world every month that the 
organ recital is more in demand than per¬ 
haps ever before. Not only do great artists 
play before crowded houses, but there is 
more and more interest in church recitals 
and the competition of the radio and the 
phonograph seem only to whet the appetite 
of music-lovers.” 

Surely there are many opportunities for 
the organist who is wide-awake, competent, 
and willing—both to fill these various en¬ 
gagements and to prepare others to fill 

As in all professions, the humorous side 
also makes its appearance occasionally in 
connection with the organist’s work, and 
some incidents may be of interest to the 
reader. Many stories have been printed 
about the late William T. Best, the emi¬ 
nent English organist, but to the writer’ 

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FORTY-FOUR studies 

With Special Regard to 
Obbligato Pedal Playing 
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■e practically indispensable to every organ 
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hey are intended to develop a thorough 
jdal technic together with independence of 

Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing oi 

knowledge the following one has not yet 
appeared: A young man was engaged in 
working on an organ on which Best was 
to give a recital. The Clarinet stop for 
the instrument arrived on the morning of 
the day on which Best was to play, and the 
young man told him not to use the Clarinet 
but that it would be ready for the recital. 
The first stop drawn by Best was the Clari¬ 
net, and turning to the young man, he said, 

“Do you call that a Clarinet—that’s a- 

of a Clarinet!” The young man, having 
had experience with Best’s eccentricities on 
former occasions, and having always here¬ 
tofore meekly endured them, let loose on 
Best and gave him a dose of his own medi¬ 
cine. When he had finished, Best laid his 
hand on the young man's shoulder and said, 
“My boy, now I think we are beginning to 
understand each other.” 

One of the most prominent concert or¬ 
ganists in this country was engaged to play 
a recital in an auditorium in a Western 
city. The auditorium, it seems, was used 
for other purposes than the refining influ¬ 
ence of music, and shortly before the date 
scheduled for the recital, a prize fight was 
staged. The Mayor of the city was on 
hand for the fight (we are not informed 
whether he attended the organ recital) and 
the top of the console of the organ ob¬ 
structed his view of the fight, consequently 
that portion of the console was removed. 
The boy who carried the water stumbled 
and spilled the bucket of water into the 
console, with the result that when the or¬ 
ganist arrived the combinations had to be 
set with a wrench on account of the rust 
and verdigris. To emphasize the refined 
atmosphere in the auditorium just as the 
organist was about to begin to play, a 
boy went through the auditorium shouting, 
“Peanuts, pop-corni” 

In a town of Ohio an organ was installed 
in a college, the contract being that the 
builder was to furnish the organ, ready to 
play. The college furnishing its own elec¬ 
tricity and other utilities. When the in¬ 
strument was finished the president charged 
the organ builder’s account with coal for " 
lighting, power for organ, heat while tun¬ 
ing and the engineer’s time. This was, of 
course, unusual, but, as the president 
seemed to have the best of it, the man who 
had erected the instrument showed himself 
“sport” enough to stand for it. A little 
later the president of the college wishing 
the console of the instrument lowered two 
feet, inquired of the young man as to the 
cost. The young man made the job seem 
so large that an elaborate estimate was 
necessary and named his figure at $375, 
which was far in excess of the cost of the 
work, which required less than a half-day 
for its accomplishment. The college pres¬ 
ident, who was also a “sport,” realized 
that the young man was getting even, and 
paid the bill. 

A Dictaphone Story 

In a very ritualistic church in one of 
the large cities in the East, the new organ 
was equipped with a dictaphone device by 
which the tone of the organ was carried to 
the choir in another room. This room was 
also used as a school room, presided over 
by Sisters connected with the church. The 
dictaphone is so arranged that it can be 
switched “on” and “off.” By an oversight, 
it was % allowed to remain “on” while a 
tuner in the organ, who was not aware of 
the fact, took occasion to give vent to his 
feelings over some troublesome reed pipe, 
in language that was, to say the least, not 
edifying to the Sisters and pupils, as it 
was carried to the room through the open 

In a certain church in Philadelphia was 
an old organ that apparently gave the or¬ 
ganist much trouble, especially a certain 
“C.” The tuner, arriving one day, found 
a note reading, “O that C.” The tuner 
went inside the organ and securing a 
washer that had crumbled almost to dust, 
put it on the key-board with a note read¬ 
ing, “O ‘see’ this.” 

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Page 27 4 APRIL 192S 


THE etude 


Page 275 


111 Favorite Selections 

Pi anologues 




IS ' 




Question and Answer Department 

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A Practical Course in 

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Page 276 APRIL 1923 

Joachim on Cremona Violins 

Joachim, the famous violinist, who was 
for many years at the head of the Royal 
High School of Music in Berlin, and who, 
during his life-time was considered the 
world’s greatest violinist, was a great 
authority on Cremona violins as well. C ‘ 
these violins he said, “With respect i 
the violin makers of Cremona, I am ( 
the opinion that the palm should be 
awarded to Antonio Stradivari, in whose 
instruments are combined the tone-pro¬ 
ducing qualities which the other great 
makers have been able to bring forth only 
individually. Maggini and Amati were re¬ 
nowned for the delicacy and sweetness 
they imparted to their instruments, but the 
union of liquidity and power is more espe¬ 
cially noticeable in the violins of Joseph 
Guarneri del Jesu and Stradivari. 

“I often wish I were a wealthy i 
' 1 order that I might make a really c 

The Violinist’s Etude 


It is the Ambition of THE ETUDE to make this Department 
“A Violinist’s Magazine Complete in Itself ” 

Bowing, Fingering and Shifting 

Every now and then some one writes would move up and down at the same time, 
to the violin department and asks for the and the kind of bowing would be uniform, 
rules of fingering, when shifting, also how In symphony orchestras, the director in¬ 
to tell what variety of bowing to apply to sists that all the bowing shall be uniform, 
various passages, where nothing is marked This is brought about by the fact that 
in the music. They evidently imagine that the parts are marked by the leading first 
. - - a few short rules can be formulated, by violin (concert-master). The director and 

plete collection of violins. I would pur- whjch they can lx)w and finger any pas _ con cert-master decide what kind of bow- 

chase one of every period, so that I might 

learn and become familiar with the individ- . 

noUtir isf oooli Qf Ai no *• i 

sage in music where it i 

uality of each maker. Stradivari seems t 
have given a soul that speaks and a heart 
that beats, to his violins; for the player 
seeks and finds a sympathetic echo t 

t specifically ing is to be used, s 
players will execute 

i that all the violin 
i given passage with 

t the essence of fundamental ti 
Joachim during his life-time owned s 
eral Stradivarius violins, one of which was 
presented to him by his English admirers 
in London. 

Never Too Late 

Now the fact of the matter is that it the same kind of bowing. The phrasing, 

requires an immense amount of study and length of slurs, use of harmonics, etc., are 

experience before the student is competent decided in the same manner. The violin- 

.. , . . . ■ , , . to bow and finger music which is not ists must play as one man, in every 

emotions; and this is thejecr*of bring- marked _ or to correct the bowing and respect . 

" c r "' c ‘ fingering of music which is wrongly Where the parts are not specifically 

marked, and this latter includes an im- marked, or marked incorrectly, as in much 
mense amount. music of the theater orchestra type, how 

There are thousands of sheet music pub- often do we see violinists sitting side by 
lications and music books for the violin, side, each playing the music according to 
in which the most important passages are his own ideas, which often radically 
left unmarked, or are marked in a way differ. 

which is quite contrary to the rules of Good violinists play music correctly, no 
It is simply astonishing what obstacles good violin playing. Composers, pianists matter how it is marked, because of their 
people who really love the violin will siir- and players of other instruments, are con- great experience in playing compositions 
mount ; and it is also noteworthy how much stantly trying to edit violin works, when which are marked correctly. They have 
pleasure can be derived from violin study, their knowledge of the violin is so limited learned the rules of the art, and instinc- 
even if taken up at an advanced age, pro- that they make a pretty mess of it, and tively bow and finger correctly, 
vided the students are content to play the student who has not yet arrived at a The student should devote much atten- 
music of moderate difficulty. stage where he knows how to do the tion to the rules of bowing and fingering, 

Mr. Edward H. Fulton, of Clinton, Iowa, work himself, struggles along in a blind which he can learn by playing scales, 
a reader of the Etude, writes to the Vio- and aimless way, trying to play them. standard studies and solo pieces, all of 

linist’s Etude as follows, about his violin which are correctly marked. If he is to 

study : “I am fifty-seven years old and Good Editions become a teacher it will be necessary for 

play the violin for my own amusement at Students of the violin will often notice him to have this knowledge, in order to 
home. I never tried the violin or other in- in compositions issued by the better class mark, or correct the music of his scholars, 

strument until just eleven months ago. of publishers, the words “Edited by-”, and tell them the whys and wherefores 

“The reason I play is because I am printed at the left of the first page of of bowing and fingering. If he is to be 
totally deaf, and cannot hear any one else the composition, opposite to the name of an orchestra player, he must be able to 
play. I “hear” my violin by vibration, via the composer. This means that the flub- play the music in a violinistic manner, 

chinbone, collar-bone, etc. I can tune my lisher. has engaged a competent violinist 
own violin and can tell a fraction of change to edit the work, i. e., to mark the bow- 
in pitch.” ing, fingering, where the shifts are to be 

Mr. Fulton takes great interest in the made, passages which are to be played 
problem of learning the vibrato, and other upon one string, the up and down bow 
technical difficulties of violin playing. He signs, the particular kind of bowing which 
has some excellent ideas as to mastering is to be applied to certain passages (espe- 
the vibrato in the shortest time. He writes : dally as regards the various forms of stac- 
“To learn the vibrato in one week, as to cato, spiccato, bouncing bow, 
the principle, but lacking, of course, fin¬ 
ished development and control, that 

l if incorrectly marked. 

The Only Way 

Now, how is the violin student to at¬ 
tain the knowledge which will enable him 
to execute violin music, in the best man¬ 
ner to express the intentions of the com¬ 
poser, even where everything is not spe- 
also the eifically marked? There is only one way 
expression marks, dynamic signs, etc. and that is to study the violin, as if he 
Good editors of violin music are scarce, were studying architecture, civil engineer- 
come only from practice, by a student able and many a violinist has built up an en- ing, or higher mathematics. The best 

to play only simple melody tunes, I suggest viable reputation by his skill in editing exercises and compositions ’ which have 

a careful reading of your article on violin music been correctly marked by master violinists 

the Vibrato, m the November, The standard violin studies, and violin must be studied. Above everything scales 
1922, Etude. Take the song or melody of solo compositions are usually marked the and arpeggi in all keys and positions must 

Lorena; transpose it or play it one octave best, and the viol'n parts of orchestra be constantly practiced. The studv of a 

higher than the voice notes, in the third music the worst. Indeed, a great deal of work like Shradiecks’ Scales where scales 
position which places the notes to be played orchestra music, especially that intended in all keys and positions from the ton to 
especially pathetic or vibrato, under the for theater orchestras, and orchestras be- the bottom of the fingerboard and scales 
fingers the most easily operated. The thrill low the symphony grade, is hardly marked in chords, all correctly fingered are me, 
or sentiment of the old song makes the at all. Instead of bowing marks we often in thirds, sixths, octaves and tenths will 
brain and fingers coordinate in a way not find only phrase marks, and very little fin- be a great help. A student who has ’care 
found in purely mechanical practice. I gering. The idea of the publishers of fully studied this work, and remembers' 

feel sure what I did in one week m the music of this kind is that it is intended for how the various passages are olaved 

vibrato could be done in even a shorter the use of players who know their in- hardly go amiss in fingering scale 

time by a younger person strument, and can play the music cor- sages, and double stops. Then the studies 

Mr. Fulton is quite right in his theory rectly, regardless of the marks. Of of Kayser, Kreutzer Fiorillo Rnd 
that playing songs with much sentiment course it would be better if music of this Paganini Sevcik and others the ’ d !i 
and expression in the third position, is a type was correctly bowed and fingered, violin concertos,’ and miscellaneous mm 
valuable way to get the idea of how to exe- especially . for the sake of students who positions for the violin offer 7 , 

cute the vibrato. What the brain feels, the have not had sufficient experience to ad- ing mine of knowledge for the ^ " 

fingers will learn to execute. While- a mit of their bowing and fingering the solving of violin problems Let the 

finished vibrato coqld not be acquired in a music at sight correctly. It would also dent try to remember how the • 
week, the germ of the idea of how to exe- be an advantage to have the bowing cor- problems are solved in these wo tJ an0U j 

cute it might be learned in that time. Like rectly marked, so that where there is more he will know how to conquer them h 

learning the trill, it takes a long time to than one violin player to a part, the bow- he meets them ir - • • en 

acquire a really artistic vibrato. 

ing would be uniform. All the bows bowing or fingering is not marked. 

composition where the 


A very good plan is for the student to 
get violin music which is either not 
marked or incorrectly marked, and try to 
work out the correct manner of playing it 
for himself. Books of first violin parts of 
orchestra music, can often be obtained 
from the publishers. Let the student re¬ 
mark and finger such parts for himself, 
to the best of his ability, and he will find 
that vastly increased knowledge will re¬ 
sult. On points where he is in doubt, he 
can consult his teacher, if under instruc¬ 
tion, or go to his books of studies, and 
try to find a solution, if he is not. 

Pupils’ Concertos 

It often happens that the reputation of 
a composer rests on a single composition, 
or small group of compositions. A case in 
point is the Student Concertos for the vio¬ 
lin, with piano accompaniment, written by 
Friedrich Seitz, a German composer. These 
useful compositions happened to fill a 
niche in teaching material for the violin, 
where there was not much material of a 
similar character, and the result was that 
these Student Concertos came into general 
use by teachers all over the world. 

While not possessed of great depth of 
striking originality as to thematic contents,' 
the concertos are, withal, pleasing in char¬ 
acter, and are useful in giving the pupil an 
idea of the violin concerto form. The piano 
parts are well worked out, and the con¬ 
certos are effective for pupils’ recitals, and 
interesting to the average audience, when 
played in public. 

The difficulty of the concertos ranges as 
follows: No. 1, in D, first to fifiii position: 
No. 2, in G, first position; i\o. 3, in G 
minor, first to fifth position: .7. 4, in D, 
third position; No. 5, in D first position. 

Those which lie entirely in the first posi¬ 
tion, can be played by pupils who have 
thoroughly mastered the First Hook of the 
Kayser studies, Op. 20, and material of 
similar difficulty. Nos. 1, 3 and 4 are more 
difficult, and can be mastered only by a 
student who has thoroughly studied the 
three books of the Kayser studies, Op. 20, 
and has played the first ten or twelve 
studies of Kreutzer, or material of similar 

The concertos are mostly in three move¬ 
ments. They are in easy k , lie well 
under the fingers, and arc \ :>.iinistic in 
character. In the more difficult ones, there 
are good passages for spiccato bowing, 
harmonics, and left-hand pizzicato, and for 
cadenza work. Above all they tire popular 
with violin students, who enjoy practicing 

Friedrich Seitz, their composer, was 
born in Gunthersleben, Germany, near 
Gotha, in 1848. He studied under Uhl rich 
in Sondershausen, and later with Lauter- 
bach in Dresden. He became musical direc¬ 
tor in Sondershausen, and later concert- 
meister in Magdeburg. He became court 
concertmeister in Dresden, in 1884. Among 
his compositions are miscellaneous pieces 
for violin and piano, Op. 41, 45, 47; 3 
trios Op. 42, and the pupils’ concertos for 
the violin. 

Renewing Interest in an Old 

By Celia F. Smith 

Very often a child becomes discouraged 
or loses interest when asked to review an 
exercise for the next lesson. When this 
is the case the exercise usually shows very 
little improvement even though it may 
be reviewed for several lessons in suc¬ 

Sometimes interest may be renewed by 
giving a name to the exercise, or by writ¬ 
ing words to fit the melody. Let the 
child suggest the name and help with the 
words as much as possible. 

THE etude 

Little Hints The Virtuoso’s Repertoire 

tn screw * uner which is attached The m ind of the virtuoso is not unlike 

wh' h , ai piece to tune the steel E string, that of the safe-deposit vault of the mod¬ 
al ^ j S , COme ' nto suc h general use, is ern hank. It usually goes on acquiring 
so . “ sed ” y many players to tune the deposits until great treasures are acquired. 
True-Tona ,, ee , , T? 611 hiat is used in addition to A Httl e look into the repertoire of Rubin- 
Saxonhnn* ,, e , Ir 7' cou ld also be used with stein'gives an idea of what is thus accumu- 
Easiestof all wind instrm ‘ he stc ‘ el but very few players use more Iated - when Rubinstein was at the head 
men ts to play and one of the tilai ] tle stee * A and E. These tuners are ot " the Petrograd Conservatory he played 
n*theecaie*in an hou°u 8 nraS f ed - als ° by many cell ° Payers for the from memory for the students every 
wMki ay Y°S“canTa'ki cina A strmg ‘ Wednesday and Sunday night from 1883 

90 iilyMf ® ne °f the greatest objections to steel to During that time he rendered 

orchftodBc™? strings for the violin is the difficulty of astonishing programs, including 1302 pieces 
chestra’dance music. °* man< t torm- tuning them. This is entirely overcome by Rom composers. He played 10 pieces 

Free Trial BS”Xrorderauz the screw tuners which make the tuning from the old English composers, Bird, 

.ntwinmtn,,!--—»»—5!I,**" speedy and exact. ' John Bull, Gibbons, Purcell and Arne; 43 

Violin solo players, and most symphony P ieces from the old French composers, 
men use the steel E, gut A, gut D (either Dumont, Louis and Thomas Couperin, 
plain or else wound with aluminum wire) Rameau and Lully; 56 from the old Ital- 
- dispiaced’by^axophones'in aii ?" d gUt , G ’ wound with silver wire. I jans, among them Frescobaldi, both the 
“ioiin“ r ceT!o C and a ba° phone Book know a * cw symphony men, however, who Scarlatti, Durante, Porpora Sacchini, Sarti, 
M “AW 18 and use the steel A with patent screw tuner. Galuppi, Martini and Clementi; 1193 from 

Dance players, playing in the open air, German composers, among whom were 
" whence it is very damp, often have to represented J. S. Bach, in 180 numbers; 
elkhart.Tndiana use E, A and D steel strines. Some nbv- Handel > 112; Mozart, 16; Schubert, 37; 
. .— ..also subject |||ji 11 ‘ ™ ” ’ ’ ’ 

mvu „._ - he Nation's Recor^Makersf 0 

Saxophone Book Free .. 

copy. ---» O 

plete catalog will bexnai.ed free. 

buescher band INSTRUMENT CO. 

Makars of Everything in Band and Orchestra 


225South Wabash Av«., Chicago 

"'SSZf'Z&SSZ «*+ 


Sold on Time Payments 


Send for Violin and Cello Catalogue 


Musicians’ Supply Company 
LaCrange Street Boston, Mass. 

3 such profuse per- Weber > 11 ; Moscheles, 21; Mendelssohn, 
spiration of the fingers that they can keep 60 ’ Schumann, 155, and Beethoven, with 

only steel strings on their violins. ad ^is sonatas for the piano alone, his 

There has been a marked increase in var ‘ at ’ ons and bagatelles. Further, Rubin- 
the popularity of the violin, since the in- stein pIayed 18 pieces from Field, 158 
vention of the little screw tuner which fa- from Ghopin and 63 from Liszt; also from 
cilitates the tuning of the steel E, since a11 llis contemporaries in Germany, France 
this makes it so much easier to keep the and Russ!a > an d from a few older, well- 

violin in tune. If all the strings of the known German composers like Frohber- 

violin would keep in tune as long as those ger > Muffat, Tomaschek and Lachner. He 
of the piano, so that the instrument would won lligh P raise from all this and retained 
be always ready for use without tuning, his ? ,ace as Director of th e Institute. He 
the number of violin students would no decl,ned a tour oi fifty concerts for which 
doubt double or quadruple within a short an Americ an manager offered him half a 
time. The nuisance of tuning, and of milIion francs, 
breaking strings, keeps thousands from - 

studying the violin Auditions 

1 he player-piano became a great popu- 

success, because it would stay in tune . An “audition” is a hearing, as, when a 
sings for an operatic director with 
of getting an engagement, or when 
a student sings 'or plays for a teacher or 
musical authority, with the idea of getting 
an opinion as to his talent or of probable 
chances of success in his musical ambitions. 

Years ago it was customary with many 
teachers, and musical authorities, to make 
no charge for an audition; but in the 
present era of commercialism the teacher 
fails to see why he should give up from 
generally ^ ^ of his time for noth ' n S> unless 

. ^ he is verv sure 

six months or a year with one tuning. The sin 8 er sin gs for 
player-violin failed to sell, very largely be- ‘ * 

cause of the difficulty of keeping it in 
tune. An ordinary purchaser could not 
tune it at all accurately. 

Practice With the Mute 

By William V. Kozlenko 

Early morning hours 

i the best for practice. 

tcwguueu aa uie ucdl im pi oeuec. The .. ,, , 

mind is clear and keen for the work; the pug ' therc 'k y ' 

he is very sure he will gain a desirable 

Bad,aching teeth! 

Jhey are dangerous to health. Treat them 
regularly with Dent’s Toothache Gum. It 
oes four things for bad teeth. 



1. Stops toothache instantly. 

2. Cleanses & protects cavity. 

3. Retards further decay. 

4. Destroys all odor, 

creosote or harmful Ingredients. 
" - 7 up like liquids At all 

nail upon receipt of price. 
C. S. Dent & Co, Detroit. 

The custom of charging a fee for an 
audition is getting to be well established 
among the more eminent teachers and 
musical authorities in the larger cities. 
The fee varies, some teachers charging the 
same fee as that they get for a lesson, 
and others more. One famous violin 
teacher charges $100 for an audition. He 
examines the . applicant thoroughly, hears 
him play, tests his ear for correct into¬ 
nation, determines his talent for rhythm, 
By this ascerta ‘ ns fi‘ s circumstances, talks with 
„„„ him, and in every way tries to judge his 
musical temperament and character. This 
might seem to be a large sum to some 
people for an opinion as to one’s musical 
ability. However, there are many cases 
in which first-class expert information as 
to one’s talent would be cheap at five times 
the price. Many violin students try for 

physical self is in its most responsive con- 

Many of us cannot practice in these 
early hours, more particularly because of 
fear of disturbing other members of the 
family or, worse still, our neighbors. If 
we wait till after the day’s routine labors, 
the mind is not so clear and we cannot 
accomplish our best. 

A good way to avail ourselves of these 
early hours, and without disturbing any¬ 
one, is to practice with the mute, 
means we can hear all we do, 
sure ourselves of its musical qualities, and 
all this without fear of annoyance to 
others. At the same time we can con¬ 
centrate much better, because we are free 
to give our full thought to our work with¬ 
out other considerations. 

A little care must be observed not to the prQfessionj s di the best ars of 
pract.ce unreasonably with the sordino lest thdr Hfe _ and thousands of doll / rs . nnlv 

- , . .. , , their life, and thousands of dollars, only 

Z** °Ll!!, n £ to with failure in the end. They 

have gone to a first rate violin au¬ 
thority and asked for the truth about their 


ment of the music. When necessary 
practice with the mute, for reasons 

.1 . , Liiuiuji eluu asiicu i ui uic iruui auout ineir 

boned, it would be better to devote most vioHnistic ability> and conseque ntly have 
of this time to technical studies, reserving wastcd their time and money t ; to 
pieces with interpretive qualities till they do some thing for which they were not 
can be practiced without such limitations, fitted by nature, lacking the talent and 
Of course difficult passages of any pieces temperament which it requires to be a 
may be practiced at this time for the mas- really, successful professional violinist, 
tery of their technical problems. No one would buy a $10,000 violin, or 

When waiting in the dressing room the an oil well, or a gold mine, without get- 
concert player may “warm up his fingers” ting all the expert information he could 
by practicing with the mute, without fear as to whether he was getting the worth 
u addressing ^ attracting the attention of the audience, of his money. On the contrary, parents, 

APRIL 1923 Page 277 

or pleasure or profit— 
"sed by famous 
catalog of any 


the VEGA CO. 

Columbus Avenue BOSTON, MASS. 


1846 the VIOLIN NAME OF FAME 1922 


For all Kinds of Players 


Violin Makers, Repairers and Dealers, Exclusively 
141 WEST 42nd ST., NEW YORK 

Faust School of Tuning 


franklin Institute 

- / Dept. R647 
, Rochester, N. Y. 
Send me AT ONCE 

/ free sample lessons n 
the subject here checked. 

D Dress Designing □ Millinery 


jfleaae mention THEKTUDU when addressifil 
Our advertisers. 

Page 278 APRIL 1! 


A System 

of Harmony 

For Teacher and Pupil 

iSF&s&gs*vsust 2KH&S33SH5 IE 

earnest ''' h ‘ oh /‘“J in FS7. illustration of a competent teacher the text - 


& SJA:S s EH £B®SP *“* 

Se 5£S5 r ™““ 

Other Special Summer Study Courses 
Pages 282, 283, 284, 285 and 286 

Page 280 APRIL 1928 


New Music Works 



Advance of Publication Offers— 

Advisability of Ordering 
Diplomas, Medals and 
Other Awards Early 

April, 1923 Spe pHce ffer 

Collection of Anthems and Oratorio 

Choruses . 

Elementary Etudes, Op. 161—F. T. Liftl 


First Piano Lessons at Home—Hamilton 
Five First Position Pieces for Violin and 

Piano—A. Hartmann. 

Forty-four Studies for the Organ — J. 
Schneider, Op. 48 (See Organist’s 

Etude, Page 273) . 

Golden Memories—Mrs H. B. Hudson. . 
Golden Whistle, The, Operetta. .Forman 

In the Forest — Grunn . 

Intermediate Study Pieces. 

Let’s Go Traveling, Operetta, Dodge. . . . 
Mazas’ 30 Special Violin Studies, Op. 
36. Book 1 (See Violinist’s Etude, 

Page 278) . 

Musical Progress—Finck. 

New Four-Hand Album . 

New Instruction Book — John M. Williams 

Newman Album of Classical Dances. 

Oratorio Songs — 4 Vols. (See Singer’s 

Etude, Page 269) each. 

Sacred Song Albums — High or Low Voice 

(See Singer’s Etude) each. 

Secular Mixed Chorus Collection. 

Seventeen Short Study Pieces—Green- 

wald . 

Short Melody Etudes—Bilbro. 

Six Piano Pieces—Huerter. 

Sixteen Recital. Etudes—Schytte. 

Song Hour, The, Book 1. 

Song Hour, The, Book 2. 

Suggestions for the 
Commencement Program 

For this most interesting event in the 
school year there is now available a large 
variety of appropriate music such as 
choruses and part songs and other num¬ 
bers. We publish a considerable list of 
such material and also stock everything 
of the kind for which there is a demand. 

As a help to those who are looking for 
commencement music we call attention to 
these unison choruses, In May, Good 
Night, Spring Song, by Wilson'; Fealty 
Song, Spooner; The Swing, Ward- 
Stephens; Anchored, Watson; two-part 
songs. To the Blue Bird, Williams; 
Lightly to Stately Measure, Gluck; Moon 
of the Springtime, Woodcock; three-part 
songs, Rainbow Song, Gest; Eyes of 
Childhood, Morrison; Song of the Morn¬ 
ing and Beautiful Stars, Wilson; soprano, 
alto and bass, The Owl and Echo Song, 
Gest; Jolly Tars, Stults; Out O’er the 
Deep. Wilson; four-part. In The Pride 
of May, Ferrata; One More Song and 
De Time for Steepin’, Wilson; Love’s Old 
Sweet Song, arranged by Bliss. These 
are listed as suggestions, but we have 
many others of each classification. Any 
of the above or others may be had on 
approval. Prompt service and liberal 
treatment at all times. 

New Four-Hand 

From time to time we have published 
very successfully four-hand albums, made 
up from the special large plates. We 
now have in process of compilation a 
similar new album which will include in 
its contents exceptionally bright, me¬ 
lodious and attractive duets of inter¬ 
mediate grade. There will be original 
four-hand pieces, transcriptions and ar¬ 
rangements in about even proportion. 
Modern and contemporary composers are 
represented chiefly. This will prove to 
be one of our very best duet books. 

The special introductory price in 
advance of publication is 30 cents per 
copy, postpaid. 

Every year at commencement season 
engrossers and engravers are over¬ 
whelmed with last-minute orders, but the 
thinking teacher or responsible individ¬ 
ual of any school avoids disappointments 
and hurried workmanship through being 
caught in this crush of business. Even 
where special lettering is not desired on 
a diploma, or special engraving is not 
required on an award in the shape of a 
medal or pin, it is advisable to make an 
early selection and thus make certain of 
having awards on hand at the proper 

In order to assist teachers and schools 
needing awards for this season’s grad¬ 
uates or honor pupils a number of sug¬ 
gestions have been made on another page 
of this issue along with some program 

Our stock forms in certificates and 
diplomas cover practically all needs of 
the music teacher and are arranged to 
accommodate special lettering if desired. 
The Musical'Jewelry Novelties we have 
to offer are very popular and there are 
nominally priced pins that will help 
encourage little students; for older and 
more proficient pupils there are other 
styles up to a very excellent Medal that 
may be had in gold or silver. Our “Music 
Teachers’ Handbook” describes all, and 
shows illustrations of many, of the cer¬ 
tificates, diplomas and jewelry items we 
have to offer. This catalog also covers 
many other helps for the teacher and 
every teacher desiring one of these hand¬ 
books needs but send a postal request in 
order to obtain a copy gratis. Please do 
not forget the admonition to act early. 

An Ideal Service 
By Mail 

There is practically no limit to the 
service rendered to music teachers through 
the mails. Without this service fully 
four-fifths of the musical profession would 
be obliged to depend upon most inade¬ 
quate and inefficient sources of supply. 
This is true particularly as regards music 
for teaching purposes, a condition diffi¬ 
cult to change because as a rule it is not 
profitable for the average dealer to in¬ 
vest heavily in supplies of that character 
and a limited stock obviously excludes 
many important items. 

Our policy for forty years has been to 
publish teaching material for all grades 
of music study and to carry as complete 
a stock as possible of all kinds of music 
and we now have, in all probability, not 
only the largest, but also the best, as¬ 
sorted supply to be found anywhere. Yet 
it is one thing to have this and quite an¬ 
other to place it at the disposal of 
customers scattered from one end of the 
country to the other; this, however, is 
made possible by a well planned mail 
order service supported on the one hand 
by quick transit of orders in the mails 
and on the other by a trained, capable 
force of order clerks. The result is not 
only prompt service, distance considered, 
but also a steadily increasing number of 
satisfied customers who have learned to 
depend upon us as a never-failing source 
of supply. 

Music teachers not familiar with our 
system and who are looking for fresh, 
practical and attractive teaching material, 
or who are interested in getting the best 
service, should write for catalogs and a 
circular describing the “On Sale” plan. 

A Home Entertainment 
Program With Your 
Talking Machine 

Some few months ago we presented to 
Etude readers, who are so fortunate as 
to possess a talking machine, a suggested 
program for a evening’s entertainment in 
the home. This list proved quite popular 
with our patrons, and, in response to 
demands for a list of a similar nature, 
we are presenting this month a program 
that we feel certain will meet with uni¬ 
versal approval. 

Parts I arid II. Victor 
Light Opera Company 
!. To a Wild Rose 

Venetian Trio 

!. Flirtation 

McCormack and Kreisler 
l. Last Night 

Mme. Homer and 

Miss Homer 
Festival at Bagdad (Sche- 
' | j&M*- am nphony 

r. Serenade — Chantez, riez, dor- 
mest (Sing, Smile, Slmnher) ^ 


3. IjC Fere de la Victoirc 

Journet 6 

). Adagietto (L’Arlesienne) 

Kreisler & String Quartet 6 
). Si vous Vaviez compris 

Caruso-Elman 8 
l. Voce di primavera (Voice ' 

35551 $1 
87549 1 

87570 1 



13. Sextette from L 

74488 1 

64834 1 

We can supply any of these records 
from our large and comprehensive stock. 
All purchases of $3.00 and over are sent 
by parcel post, charges prepaid. Send 
for catalogs of Victor and Brunswick 
records, Brunswick Phonographs and 
Victor Victrolas; gratis upon request. 

Etude Prize 

As announced last month, the time for 
the close of the Etude Prize Contest has 
been extended to July 1st, 1923. In addi¬ 
tion, the amount to be awarded in prizes 
iias been increased; a complete announce¬ 
ment will be found on another page of 
this issue. There is still abundant oppor¬ 
tunity for all to be represented in this 
contest. Composers may be represented 
in all classes but by only one composi¬ 
tion in each class. It is best to submit 
new and practical works, pieces which 
may have been written for study pur¬ 
poses or as examination theses are, as a 
rule, not well adapted for publication 
and consequently are not likely to be 
successful in a contest of this nature. 
The prizes are so arranged that they 
cover practically all grades in piano 
music, sacred and secular vocal solos, 
anthems and secular part-songs. 

Named Songs For Assembly 
Singing and Rural Schools) 

. book was originally designate 

in the above manner because of the in 
menseneedof just such a bo.ok for rur: 
school purposes. However, after cor 
suiting with experts we found that tl: 
need for precisely the same book wa 
just as great in the day school in th 
city, large and small, and for that matte 
in the musical home. People are sin; 
ing more these days. The war brougl 
that about. Young folks need a goo 
song book in the home. The old “Colies 
Songs” was the magnet of thousands c 
home groups. The Song Hour will serv 
in the same manner in normal homes c 
sensible people, anxious to keep tli 
home ties from being entirely severe 
by the shears of moving pictures, club 
automobiles, jazz. Book I is without piam 
forte accompaniments so that seho ( 
boards everywhere can secure this wor 
m the most inexpensive form. (Speci; 
advance of publication price, 15c.) Boo 
II has the accompaniments complete 
(special advance of publication price c 
cents a copy.) The Song Hot 
is the compilation of some of the greai 
est school authorities in the country an 
was partly prepared as a public servk 
under the supervision of a great eommor 


Small Photographs of the 
Great Masters 

We are pleased to announce that it 
will be possible for us to supply within 
a reasonably short time a carton con¬ 
taining one each of the following great 
masters’ photographs:— 

Beethoven, Mozart, Bach, Mendelssohn 
Schumann, Schubert, Liszt, Chopin’ 
Handel, Haydn, Wagner, Verdi. ’ 

The size of eacli photograph is I%x2%" 
and the price is twenty cents for the’ 
twelve. Here are real photographs of a 
very desirable size for only a little over 
one cent each, about the price it has 
been necessary to pay for the ordinary 
half-tone prints of the past. We believe 
that these small photographs are going 
to supply the great demand that has 
been felt by us from the teachers and 
schools of the country. If this set of 
twelve is well received, we will go further 
and make other series of musicians’ 
photographs and at the same rate. 

Six Pianoforte Pieces 
By Charles F. Huerter 

This set of six pieces is an exempli¬ 
fication of extreme modern treatment as 
applied to compositions of moderate diffi¬ 
culty and in characteristic vein. The 
pieces arc entitled, A Miniature; A 
Nightmare; Shepherd’s Song: March Bur¬ 
lesque; Romance Poetiqui ; i ’nlse Bur¬ 
lesque. These pieces are melodious and 
in regular form. Their unconventionality 
lies chiefly in the harmonic treatment. 
Such pieces are necessary in teaching 
nowadays, in order to accustom students 
to the modern trend and development in 
the art of music. They form a good prep¬ 
aration for the larger works which must 
be taken up later on. , 

The special introductory price in 
advance of publication is 30 cents per 
copy, postpaid. 

New Piano Pieces 
By Rudolf Friml 

We take pleasure in announcing that 
a new and important name has been 
added to our catalog, that of Mr. Rudolf 
Friml, the well known pianist and com¬ 
poser. We have accepted from Mr. 
Friml a very interesting set of piano 
pieces. One of these pieces entitled 
Moon Dawn, will be found in the music 
pages of this issue. There are five other 
pieces in this set, all in Mr. Friml’s best 
style and well diversified in character. 
They are all of intermediate difficulty, 
about grade IV. Deserving of special 
mention are Valse Christine and Marche 
Mignonne. We are also publishing Mr. 
Friml’s new love song entitled Longing. 
This number will also be published in a 
transcription for piano solo. 

A New Instruction Book 
By John M. Williams 

Piano teachers who prefer to start in 
at once with both treble and bass clefs, 
will welcome this new book with enthu¬ 
siasm. Mr. Williams, who is a practical 
teacher and writer with many successful 
works to his credit, has embodied the 
best results of his own teaching experi¬ 
ence in this new book. It is a real 
instruction book starting in from the 
very beginning. The material, which is 
both original and selected, is set forth in 
a logical and progressive manner. Excel¬ 
lent results will undoubtedly be obtained 
from the use of this work. 

The special introductory price iu 
advance of publication is 40 cents per 
copy, postpaid. 

Intermediate Study Pieces 
For the Piano 

This will be the final month of the 
introductory offer on this book. It 
printed from special large plates and 
there are an unusual number of pi«* s 
included. We give a partial list of its 
contents as follows: Perpetual Motion, 
Webb; Blowing Bubbles, Felton; Pif r ~ 
retta, Noelck; Boheme Polka, Rubinstein; 
Twilight Reverie, Heller; Plaisanterie, 
Barge; The Brook, Karganoff; and many 

The special introductory price in 
advance of publication is 30 cents per 
copy, postpaid. 


The Golden Whistle „ 

juvenile Operetta Bv H^r s 

By Mrs. R. R. Forman T ’ Finck 

We are about to publish a new operetta the mo.stdk^'' 6 ■ y , ea f’ as music editor of 
for children, by two well-known writers l>apers, Henr/T p in l ^ eW J ork news ‘ 
whose previous efforts have met with closest contact wi'twT* haS been m the 
invariable success. The magic properties world and n , the S reat music of the 
of the Golden Whistle are^J hUong ofthe greatest many 

and story in a very new and entertaining nial and iUumin^h, , No m ° re gC ~ 

manner. Gertrude Knox Willis haf into American ewu? f*? has ,f v « come 
written a fascinating plot all about a very best work ! journalism. The 

sleepy boy and a white rabbit with a from this gLt j"‘ nStr f uctl . v c character 
witch, elves and the Queen of the Fairies experience fs ImWr ?/ - ncb ™ us,cal 
herself, and Mrs. Forman has written Progress” embodied in Musical 
just the sort of music to please both the an asset ’to th7 Pa — ° f which wiU be 
juvenile performers and their audience, possessing 1 it , (y T" g or old ) 

The brightest and catchiest melodies reading fhe proofs *** fi ? ished 

all in unison, and charming dances fully to secure thf ir ! d the opportunity 
described and all costumes and stage “introductory rate” 1 * of so ^ T™ 1 

directions are carefully detailed in the remain open long ^ DOt 

book. This play may be given in or out VT g ‘ 

of doors. The stage setting is very Newman Album of 
simple, inexpensive and easily provided. Classical Danrps 
One copy only to any one at an ad- q in „ A ■ 
vance of publication price of 30 cents. nrf „ ™ US1C , and dancing are kindred 
„ , . °“ 8 ’ u is eminently fitting that thev 

Etudes Miniatures should be united in , i, n j, _ , - 

Easy Study Pieces 
By Frances Terry 


shouM be united in a book of this nature. 

d f n t CeS t0 lje found in this work 
works nf° ° f I 1 ’ 6 most ce f e brat e d 

tire title which has been s ome splendid* 5 numbers bTcontemporaJy 
—. . , the new set of studies by writers. There are both solo and 

Frances Terry. We have omitted the ensemble dances, all of them are care 
title “Alphabet,” which we used last f «lly worked out and described in full 
month .i, tins might prove somewhat with diagrams and explanatory text The 
misleading, t hese studies are not of the umsic pages are marked and numbered 
first grail. I it they lie in grades 2 and to correspond with the descriptions 4nv 
2i/,. Then ,re twenty-six studies in all one who understands dancing should be 
and they arc particularly good, so much “ble to work out any of these numbers 
so that i. number of them might be successfully by following the given direc- 
plaved separately as pieces. They are tions. This book is almost ready, 
tuneful throughout and well contrasted, The special introductory price in 
the harmonics and the general treatment advance of publication is 75 cents per 
being most workmanlike. This is just co Py» postpaid, 
the right sort of book to take up before 

beginning third grade work. Five First Position Pieces 

The ! .1 introductory price in For Violin and Piano 

advance publication is 35 cents per By Arthur Hartmann 
copy, post pal The grading of violin students is quite 

In the Forest different from that of piano students. 

Nine Nature Studies the - v “ un f '' ioll " is , 1 , first begins to 

Bv HnmiT Primn ,d '.- ’ be works first of all upon the open 

ny Homer Grunn Strings and thence works his way into 

This work is* now on the press but the the First Position. He remains 'in the 
special introductory offer will be con- first position, however, until he is well 
tinued during the current month. Much P ast the elementary stages and there are 
can be done with these unique character- many effective pieces which do not require 

istic pieces. 'They may be used us piano a knowledge of more than the first 

. 1 1 solos, or recitations or, position. There is always a demand for 
group, they may be produced SIK 'b pieces. Mr. Hartmann’s new set of 
mil made into a little wood- pieces are charming in every way. They 
They are extremely well a re rea l violin music and the violinist 
modern style. In point of has something good to play which does 
y belong in the second and not overtax his technic. 

taken as 
in costun 
land skei 

.—- - i-- 

minculty tl„ y belong in the second and not overtax his technic, 
third grades The special introductory price in 

The special introductory price in advance of publication is 30 cents per 
" publication is 25 cents per C( W> postpaid. 

e °py, postpaid. 

Melodious Elementary 
Etudes, Op. 161 
By Franz J. Liftl 

.This is a set of fifteen ™ 

Collection of Anthems 
and Oratorio Choruses 

Difficult as are Oratorio choruses, this 
volume contains anthems and choruses 
useful of varlous types and degrees of difficulty. 

It provides the conductor or choir 

studies arranged "in "progressive ortler Jt P^des the conductor or choir 
beginning in the early second grade 411 master Wlth a solution of many problems. 

arpin 1 . going beyond'three f acrGd m i d ' wcek concerts or special 

fe arp r^r- Sunday afternoon or evening services 

sharps or three flats. - " They' are par¬ 
ticularly good for study in ‘ mechanism, “ ce “ H P 1C 

Author m and in va netv of touch. The m V s, . c - Io Y' 

author is a well known and very success- °* “ e Gno,r “ *“8™ 
tul European teacher and composer. Mr. Potion may be found 
is already well represented in our »rachcallv anv and ev 
well g by many original compositions as 
»eu as compilations from the classics. 

,ine special introductory price in 
advance of publication is 35 cents per 
c °Py, postpaid. 

Sixteen Recital Etudes 
By Ludwig Schytte, Op. 58 

his m f?. < l. by ?®. ! s known chiefly through 

need splendid classic numbers to interest 
music-lovers and demonstrate the ability 
of the choir of singers and in this com¬ 
pilation may be found many numbers for 
practically any and every season, worthy 
of serious study and having the added 
advantage of being bound together. 

Our advance of publication cash price, 
35 cents, postpaid. 

Short Melody Etudes 
With Technical Points 
By Mathilde Bilbro 

Bilbro’s work, as an elementary 

em '““g V deI ightful piano pieces in mod- writer and a teacher of the young, is 
n and characteristic stvlc. Pieces such well and favorably known. She has to 
Stud- S,u ™ ber Song and 'in the Mill. His her credit many successful works. The 
- and ltV ' Op- -5S, have all the tunefulness Short Melody Etudes are little study 
at art ‘ Stic finish of his piano pieces but pieces in a characteristic vein well 
val ne Same time thev have real technical adapted for second grade work. They 

* . and interest. ‘ These studies are are all very tuneful and they cover just 

ducf- y good to be used as an intro- such points as are required at this stage 

corn- to the works of the more modern of progress, such as scAles, repeated 

‘f osers - They are of about the same notes, broken chords, wrist touch, stac- 
8 TR aS User's Op. 45. cato, etc. 

adt;! special introductory price in The special introductory price in 
eonv 6 of Publication is 30 cents per advance of publication is 25 cents per 
iy> postpaid. ‘ copy, postpaid. 

Exhibition Pieces 
For Piano Solo 

This new book is now well along in prep¬ 
aration but the special introductory 
offer will be continued during the current 
month. This is a splendid opportunity 
to obtain an unusual number of exhibition 
pieces, all gathered together under the one 
cover. The book will be printed from spe¬ 
cial large plates. There are many occasions 
when such pieces as these are indispen¬ 
sable. The player is often called upon 
for pieces which tend to display powers 
of execution, of velocity, of endurance or 
even of bravura. All such pieces will be 
found in this collection. 

The special introductory price in 
advance of publication is 50 cents per 
copy, postpaid. 

Let’s Go Traveling 
Operetta For Children 
By Cynthia Dodge 

A rainy day story in song and action, 
for boys and girls, in quaint and curious 
costumes. No “flower” nor “fairy” plot, 
but a real entertainment for the audience 
and real fun for the performers. 

The humor of the dialog is particu¬ 
larly suited for boys as. well as girls and 
each character takes an equally active 
part in the play. 

The music is all in unison when the 
chorus is used, is very tuneful, easy to 
memorize and lies in the proper ranee 
of the young voice. 

Pen-and-ink sketches show all costumes 
and the stage directions give all steps of 
dances, all gestures and suggestions 

One copy only may be obtained at the 
special advance of publication price, 40 
cents, postpaid. 

Etudes de Style 
By E. Nollet 

T bis book of studies is now in press 
and the edition will soon be ready. The 
grace and refinement, found in the writ¬ 
ings of all of the modern French com¬ 
posers, are particularly well exemplified 
in these studies. Although in point of 
difficulty they do not proceed beyond 
grades four and five, nevertheless, they 
are real artist studies, each one being 
well worth playing as a separate piece. 
They are more interesting to play than 
studies of similar grade by Heller and 
other writers and that is saying a great 

The special introductory price in 
advance of publication is 35 cents per 
copy, postpaid. 

Seventeen Short Study Pieces 
For the Piano 
By M. Greenwald 

Short Study Pieces in the Second and 
Third Grades is the title selected for 
this new book. It is now nearly ready. 
These study pieces partake of the nature 
both of technical studies and of char¬ 
acteristic pieces; each number has an 
appropriate title. The technical features 
include scale work, wrist work, crossing 
the hands, repeated notes, triplets, legato, 
chromatics, velocity, broken octaves and 
broken chords. It is just the sort of a 
book to take up upon beginning third 
grade work. 

The special introductory price in 
advance of publication is 25 cents per 
copy, postpaid. 

Golden Memories 
By Mrs. H. B. Hudson 

This new book is now well under way. 

It completes the series by Mrs. Hudson, 
bfK™ with her little book entitled, 

A B. C. of Piano Music. Whereas, the 
other hooks of the series all use the 
capital letters only instead of the musicul 
notation, this book still uses the capital 
letters hut also gives the musical no¬ 
tation. Thus the connection between the 
capital letters and the musical notation 
is finally established. The melodies are 
not original but are taken from familiar 
hymns, folk songs, etc., all arranged in a 
very easy manner. 

The special introductory price in 
advance of publication is 25 cents per 
copy, postpaid. 1 

APRIL 1923 Page 281 

First Piano Lessons at Home 
By Anna H. Hamilton 

The special introductory offer for this 
new book will be continued during the 
current month, although the edition is 
very nearly ready. This is a genuine 
first book in music; it may be used at 
the beginning, independent of any method 
or instructor, or it may be used in con¬ 
junction with the first instruction hook. 
Throughout a considerable portion of the 
book the pupil plays with one hand only 
at a time and in the treble clef. In addi¬ 
tion to this it combines the features of 
an elementary writing hook. 

The special introductory price In 
advance of publication is 50 cents per 
copy, postpaid. 

Secular Mixed 
Chorus Collection 

Choral Societies or Community Clubs 
of singers will find this book a great help. 
In the one volume are choruses enough 
for a program, including every type, 
humorous, serious, descriptive or dramatic 
and all within the scope of reasonably 
good amateur organizations. 

The binding together of this great 
variety of material leaves no separate 
copies to be mislaid. Each and every 
number in the book has been tried out 
enough to show its worth, so there is no 
“dead wood” in the collection. 

The special price in advance of publi¬ 
cation is 35 cents, postpaid. 

Advance of Publication Offers 


Works Now Issued 

Album of Selected Compositions for the 
Pianoforte, By Johannes Brahms. Price 
$2.50. The only apology we have to make in 
regard to this album is the delay there 
has been in its appearance from the 
press, but that delay has been unavoid¬ 
able, owing to the care and work that 
was necessary in the selection and prep¬ 
aration of this volume. All of the best 
and most frequently played numbers are 
included. No pianist’s library is com¬ 
plete without this volume. While the 
price seems high, when the list of con¬ 
tents is considered or comparisons are 
made, it will be found to be a very 
reasonable one. 

Spaulding Easy Album of Piano Com¬ 
positions. Price 75 cents. The work of 
Mr. George L. Spaulding is happiest in 
just such easy, melodious teaching pieces 
as are contained In this volume. There 
are 22 popular compositions included. 
Every one is of educational merit and 
yet bright and extremely musical. 

Musical Pictures from Childhood. By 
A. Kop 3 r low. Price $1.00. Here is a 
collection by one of the best contemporary 
Russian writers. We believe it better than 
some of the easy classics; it is most char¬ 
acteristic and extremely musical. The work 
lias been well edited and it can he recom¬ 
mended to all teachers interested in young 

Peter Pan, By Mrs. H. H. A. Beach. 
Price 50 cents. Here is a cycle of songs for 
three-part choruses of women’s voices by 
the leading woman composer. This setting 
of Peter Pan is most beautiful and is not 
too easy. We would say that this is a real 
opportunity for every director of a 
women’s chorus to present a work by an 
American woman composer of which all 
will be proud. 

Popular Salon Album, a collection of 
brilliant pieces for the pianoforte. Price 
75 cents. A collection of 35 recital pieces 
suitable for one’s own amusement or for 
playing before any gathering. A wealth 
of good, pleasing compositions of more 
than usual musical merit by leading 
modern composers. Not one of these 
compositions will be found in anv other 

. are pleased to announce the 

issuance of the above five volumes of 
such a varying character. Every one of 
the above has a distinct purpose and 
they are of such a character that we are 
proud to present them. Any of the 
above will now be delivered upon the 
receipt of the regular professional price 
or can be obtained on selection, the same 
as any other musical work or anv sheet 
music composition on our entire catalogue. 


Pago 282 APRIL 1923 

Premium Workers, 


Three new premiums have been added 
to our list which are well worth the effort 
which is necessary to secure them. You 
will be pleased beyond measure with any 
or all of them and it would only take 
seven subscriptions to secure the lot. 

The “Prim Lady’’ Shopping Bag (see 
advertisement). It is made of Art Leather, 
substantial and roomy. 

Only TWO subscriptions. 

Sterling Silver Bar Pin, hand-engraved, 
2 inches long. 

Only TWO subscriptions. 

' Sterling Silver Hand-Engraved Pin, 2 
inches long, set with pearl or rhinestone, 
very dainty. 

Only TWO subscriptions. 

Sterling Silver Bar Pin, 2% inches long, 
with colored stone or rhinestone in center. 

Only ONE subscription. 


Practically all winter expirations have 
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the subscriber has is a worthless receipt. 

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of Copies 

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Teacher of Singing 


Five Weeks, Beginning June 25th 
Iddress, D. A. Clipping*-, 617-618 Kimball Hall, Chicago 



Summer Session Opens June 18th 

Dana Musical 
3 P°M? Eastern 

Permanently Adopted by Foremost Teachers 




itbook told in story form. So clear a child can understand every wor 
charmed with it. AD difficult words “self-pronounced.” ISO excell 
Europe, 400 test questions, 250 pages. Strongly bound in maroon dc 

A thoroughly practical 

illustrations, map of musical nurope, -rury rest qi 



A Brilliant Concert Waltz-Song 


By Hallett Gilberte 

Appearing on the Programs of Many Prominent Vocal Artists 

High in E Flat, Range d to c. Medium in C, Range b to a. 


A feature number with 

Published by 


1710-1712-1714 Chestnut Stre 

ffe *..<» r r ' * 



J:; I - ; 1 


nTi* L. ilP 


Herbert Witherspoon 

44 West 86th Street, New York 

The Education of a Singer 

Voice, Interpretation, Coaching in Opera, 
Oratorio and Concert Repertory, Practice 
Lessons, Acting, Piano, Sight Reading 
and Analysis, French, Italian, German, 
Lectures, Pupils’ Musicales. 

All the work done with the assistant teachers is under 
Mr. Witherspoon’s personal supervision. 

New pupils will be heard by Mr. Witherspoon by special 

Famous singers who have studied with 
Mr. Witherspoon: 

Merle Alcock, Celebrated Concert Contralto. 

Mabel Garrison, Soprano —Metropolitan Opera Co. . 

Lucy Gates, Grand Opera and Concert Soprano. 

Florence Hinkle, Famous Concert Soprano. 

Louise Homer, Metropolitan and Chicago Opera Companies. 
Louise Homer Stires, Concert Soprano. 

Kathleen Howard, Contralto —Metropolitan Opera Co. 
Olive Kline, Well-known Concert Soprano. 

Lambert Murphy, Tenor — Metropolitan Opera Co. and 

Edna Thomas, Concert Mezzo-soprano. 

Amy Ellerman, Concert Contralto. 

Carl Formes, Baritone—Williamson Opera Co., Australia. 
Knight MacGregor, Concert Baritone. 

John Quine, Concert Baritone. 

Ellen Rumsey, Opera and Concert Contralto. 

Vernon Williams, Tenor — Grand Opera, Italy. 

(Son of the late Evan Williams) 

Miss Minnie Liplich, Secretary 

Telephone Schuyler 5889 

Mr. Witherspoon will teach at the Chicago 
Musical College, 620 South Michigan Boulevard, 
Chicago, from June 25th to July 28th, 1923. 

Mr. Graham Reed, assisted by Mr. Walter Leary, 
will conduct a summer course at the Herbert 
Witherspoon studios in New York from June 25th 
to August 1st, 1923. 

Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing our advertisers. 











Normal Courses 

Five Weeks, June 27 to July 31 


Ten Weeks, May 23 to July 31 

Six Weeks, June 27 to August 7 

The Greatest Faculty ever Assembled in any American School of Music. Over 90 Teachers 
of International Reputation. Among them are 

PIANO— Jan Qhiapusso, Mme. Julie Rive-King, Edgar 
A. Nelson Ella Spravka, Edgar A. Brazelton, 
John J. Blackmore 

VOICE— Charles W. Clark, Boza Oumiroff, Gustaf Holm- 
qrnst, Herbert Miller, Mae Graves Atkins, Mme. 
Justine Wegener. 

VIOLIN— Richard Czerwonky, Bruno Esbjorn, Rowland 

ORGAN —Edgar A. Nelson, Florence Hodge. 

CELLO-B runo Steindel. 

Edgar A. Brazelton, Grace Walter, Rowland Leach. 
EXPRESSION —Mae Riley McKinley. 

ACTING— Lester Luther. 

DANCING— Cora Spicer Neal. 


tup Normal Courses are offered in all departments. Special attention is called to the SIX- 

WEEKS COURSE IN PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC under Lyravine Votaw and William Nordin and 

DORA G. SMITH, famous authority on Chicago High School Music 

Special announcement is made of the exclusive teaching engagement of 


World-renowned violinist and teacher of Kubelik, Kocian and Morini, available 


A remarkable opportunity for American violinists to study with the foremost violin teacher of the present day, 
with the superior artistic advantages of this great school. 


In Piano, Voice and Violin with each of the Artist Teachers of these departments. The scholarships will be awarded 
in open competition. Send for application blanks. 


The only Conservatory in Chicago maintaining extensive student dormitories for Women and Men. All outside 
rooms. Practice pianos. Rates $9.00 per week and up. Excellent table. Reservations should be made as far in 
advance as possible to insure accommodations for the summer Term. 

For detailed information and Summer Session Bulletin address 

T. E. JONES, Registrar, 839 North Dearborn Street, Chicago, III. 

Taqe 286 APRIL 1928 


Ithaca Conservatory of Music 


Affiliated m™", 

Director. John Quine, Bert Rogers 
r, pupil of Leschetizky. Seven assist- 

Egbert, Dean, pupil of Sevcik. Caesar Thomson, 
learner, ana six assistants. . 
n, James Quarles, Director. Official Organist Cornell Univer- 
•reparatory, Academic, Post Graduate and Special Courses, 
did equipment of eleven buildings, including- four dormitories, 
um, gymnasium, sorority and fraternity buildings, etc. All 
approved by the New York State Board of Regents 
Six Affiliated Schools 

>rge C. Williams, Dean. 

ffiards. Dean. Private 
Conducting, Violin 



\ Metropolitan College of Music 


Kate S. Chittenden, Dean 

V and a 

Pedagogy \ FACULTY OF 
Lead to \ teaching 

Certificates and Diploma\ Music in 

Summer Session \ al1 lts , 

Be ins \ branC ' ies 

June 18 th \ 


Summer Rates May 15 to September 15 
For Catalogue and Circulars address \ 


Managing Director \ 

212 W. 59th St. New York City \ 

Trinity Principle 

Institute of Musical Art 

of the City of New York 


corner 122nd Street, West of Broadway 


Special classes in Singing, Song and Opera 
Repertoire under ALEXANDER SAVINE 
Serbian Singer, Conductor and Composer 

Special Classes for Advanced Pianists^and Teachers, 


For full information apply to the Director. 



PI A] 



New York 
Courses for 

Sight-Touch-Heariug-System Send for Booklet 
Mr. Cranberry will direct the University of Georgia Summer 
School of Music June 25th to August 4th, Athens, Ga. 

Summer School Announcements 
Pages 279, 282, 283, 284 and 285 


264 W. 93rd St., NEW YORK CITY 

Offers an efficient schedule for each pupil's needs 
, . (For the Pupil—Method 

Instruction / For the Professional—Coaching 
[For the Teacher-New Ideas 


New short cuts towards proficiency. How 
to co-ordinate most effectively. The secrets, 
of piano touch, and other valuable informa¬ 
tion for piano teachers. 


516 West 143rd Street New York City 


I The Weigester Summer School of Vocal Music 

™ Youngstown, Ohio, July 18th to August 29th, 1923, (6 weeks) 

The Entire Ground of Vocal Study is covered by means of 

Lecture, Class and Private Instruction 

Write for Booklet E Carnegie Hall, New York City 

lty I 


of The University of Rochester 


Summer Session, June 25 to July 28,1923 

Courses for Teachers of Public School Music 
Courses for Public School Teachers of Instrumental Music 
Normal Course for Piano Teachers 
Course in Interpretation for Piano Students 
Private lessons in Composition and Counterpoint, Piano, Voice, 
Violin, Violoncello, Organ, Harp, Orchestral Instruments, 
Organ Accompaniment of Motion Pictures 
For Catalogue and Information, Address 


Rochester, New York 


Director of the >■ 



School of Public Performance 

Announces a 

Normal Course for Teachers, also 
Special Technic Course for Pianists 

JUNE 20th TO JULY 28th 

SUBJECTS—Virgil Technic, Interpretation, Practical 
Harmony, Time, Accent, Rhythm, Sight 
Reading and Ear Training. 


120 West 72nd Street, 

New York City 

Conservatory in the West 




June 25, to 
August 4— 
Six Weeks 


47th Year 

Francis L. York, M. A.. Pres. Elizabeth Johnson, Vice-Pre 

JAMES H.BELL, Secy., Boi 7,5035 Woodward Ave., DETROIT, MICH. 

. „ AUGUST 4 

Intenswe Courses ,n Piano, Voice, Violin. Organ, Public School Music, Harmony 

Faculty of 110. New $350,000 Budding. Low Tuition Rates. Room and Board $6 50 per week Send for free folder 


Nicollet at Eighth 

Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing our advertisers. 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 

APRIL 1923 Page 2SZ 



i ' 



j\ ■ 


Harry’s Lesson 

y Olga C. Moore 

p The Swan—Saint-Saens 

t , I HJ*?" man y%jpnes : .;do you suppose you 
I heard. The Sivan by Saint-Saens? 

jh p' ccc "langtaiore times than the pianists; 

| and if you play the violin you may already 

H have it .in your repertoire. |'If not, you 
m shot! Id. learn-it and add it'to your list of 

I. mcmo '||ed Pieces,‘‘as it as always well¬ 
s’ I wed and is a good number ;,> have 
| ready^j It has beenpsuTangccl for a great 
I: many inatt^ipents and'eomhinations of in- 
§ str umenf$WBg qvenp%cal arrangements 
of it have been made. Saint-Saens wrote 
it as a short piece for orchestra and piano, 
one of a suite of twelve short pieces— 
very short, in fact, some of them are- 
called “The Carnival of Animals.” Some 
of the pieces are very humorous but are 
seldom performed. The Swan is the most 
beautiful in the set and is very well known 
and popular. It is a simple flowing melody 
in quarters and eighths, with a broken 
chord accompaniment in sixteenths, in the 
key of G major. The only thing at all 
unusual is the time, 6/4, which must be 
counted out carefully at first. 

Saint-Saens was born in France, in 
1835, and died in 1921, at the age of 87. 
What other compositions of his can you 
mention ? 

Harky had received a new piece, at his 
ast lesson, called Rose Petals. Practice 
time came along, on this particular dav 
and Harry stalked up to the piano. 

■hirst of all he banged through the first 
page of Rose Petals. Harry did not know 
that his father had come home early and 
was reading the evening paper in the next 
room. (Or rather, he was watching the 
boy over the top of his paper.) When 
Harry had finished the first page, and 
“ the second, his father called, 
i0n «v.rL YeS ’ sir ’” answer ed the startled 
son. What new style of music is this you 
are giving us this evening?” asked his 
father, I don’t think I ever heard any 
musician pound on the keys as you are 

doing, if you ’d like tQ break the p . ano a 

little quicker, there’s a big hammer down 
stairs m my tool box, that you may use.” 


an’t play 

Harry’s head drooped, his face flushed 

JSJ? hurt him ' To 

himself, he finally answered fretfully, “Oh 
pshaw, Dad, what does a boy want with 

such a piece as Rose Petals? Mrs. M_- 

is always talking about a beautiful melody 
m the bass and soft chords in the treble. 
I don t want that mushy stuff. What have 

I got big strong hands for, if I 
the chords loud with ’em? I want some¬ 
thing rough and tumble!” 

, “ 0h - 1 see ’” said Harry’s father, thought¬ 
fully, You do not want MUSIC, you want 

to make NOISE. You know that we are 
going to attend a piano recital to-night, 
given by Miss Right’s pupils, and you will 
hear some real music there—not noise.” 

The Recital was under way. The next 
number on the program was Rose Petals 
played by Issy Right (Miss Right’s young 
brother, and Harry’s playmate). 

The first melody, played with the left 
hand, came forth like the tones of a ’cello 
the right hand playing an accompaniment 
ot soft chords, reminding one of rose 
softly’ dr ° Pping ’ dr °PP in g. dropping, oh, so 
Then the right hand took up the melody 

Tht i!fth°“!i a i, little higher ’ Hke a violin - 
I he left hand here carried an accompani¬ 
ment, with a little accent on the first beat 
of each measure, while the double notes 
'the’mdody!’ softly, just keeping time with 

Then, again, the ’cello-like tones, so like 
the human voice, sang clearly in the bass 
and the right hand chords again seemed to 
represent rose petals dropping softly. 

., Tru ' y .’ Issy , R, £ h t was a little artist, and 
the audience heartily approved of his play¬ 
ing, judging by the tremendous applause 
Harry shyly turned to his father and" 
S’ 1 say - Had, when we get home, I 

WTTCTr S ! e e 1 „ can make that much 
MU S IC out of my Rose Petals.” 

J?! y0U wish that we could be mice 

when'he” I 1 " °" Ha " y ’ s next music lesson 
when he plays Rose Petals? 


H-V™ a thor °ughly reliable sense of 
rhythm. And even if you have, are you 
thoroughly familiar with all the various 
time signatures ? And the many ways that 
measures can be made up in each time 

The following is a good exercise for 
making one feel “at home” in different 
time signatures. 

Take a piece of paper and write a two- 
four-time signature, and space off eight 
measures. In the first measure put one 
note which must fill the measure of time 
in the second measure put two notes. In 
the third put three notes; in the fourth 
lour notes and in the fifth, five notes, and 
so on. The exact time value must be 
given to each note to make the number of' 
given notes exactly fill the measure. 

Then do the same again, this time giving 
yourself a three-four time signature. Then 
again with a four-four time signature. 
Then with a five-four, six-four. Then 
with three-eighth, four-eighth, six-eighth 
and s ? , fort , h ' Th is may be done by any 
one, individually, or may be used as a 
stunt” at a club or class meeting, giving 
a prize for the one having the fewest 

A little fish swam in the sea 
As merry as a fish could be 
And when the fisher man came nea 
It said, "He’ll not catch me. 

I have no fear. 

I can not leave the sea so soon 
For 1 do my SCALES each day 
At noon.’’ 

Letter Box 

Dear Junior Etude • 

w n oS,^ 8 e. fr ° m M °“- 

Montreal is a city of two 

and French ^so we have cc-— ^’ 
both languages. At school we arc 
smg French and English songs. 6 
T , Yours sincerely 

Edith Mary Harrison'(A ge 12) 

Verdun, Montreal, P. Q„ Canada. 

over e some R ofYh/'mews Etc,db ' and flaying 

Bird Calls in Different Nations 

In some countries the calls of certain 
luck are take ” ‘° mean g00d luck or bad 
In Poland the hooting of an owl is 
n as a sign of misery, 
said p, L r ° aking of a ™ in ^ssia is 
is take ^ bloodshed. The cuckoo 

In c” In - Russia as a s '8 n of sadness. 

c “*~ i! » 

* "* h W h* so “" ,ime! 


Hers is something new for a pastime 
when you g0 on your vacation this sum¬ 
mer. Of course some of you live all the 
year round where you can go into the 
fields and woods; but a great many others 
only see the fields and woods for a short 
time in the summer. Everyone loves to 
sit in the fields and imagine th.emselves in 
the middle of a vast sea of grass and 
clover, and look at the sky and the clouds 
and listen to the birds. And don’t you 
love to pull the daisies and buttercups and 
fancy grass? But soon your bouquet 
becomes wilted, you throw it away and 
have nothing to show for your visit to 
the fields. 

The next time you go, take a strip of 
heavy paper, about eight or ten inches 


Th" D ^ W 3 St3ff ° n * "ith crayon. 
Then gather your clover and fancy grass 
and make a little melody on your staff. 
Cet white clover for the half and whole 
and red £ lover the quarters and 
eighths. Put them just exactly where 
they should go on the staff to make your 
melody, and push the stems through to 
the other side of the paper so they will 
stay in place. Use blades of grass for 
“ e of the notes and for the 

hooks’ of the eighths. Make little slits 
m the paper to pull each end of the blade 
of grass through, so they will stay in 

Place too. You will have a very prettv I 
melody and you can bring it home with ,, 
you and try it on your piano. { 

I sometimes think 
It’s so much trouble 
To practice every day, 
But then I know 
It’s necessary 
To really learn to play. 

If all the scales 
Were joined together 
And rolled out into one, 
It seems to me 
That it would reach 
From here up to the sun. 

JT ^ ' 1,11 .you now muen I pnlnu 'Tum 

tude and especially the Junior Department 
^udying piano for four years and 

Your friend, 

Maby Donahoe (Age 13). 


Page 2S8 APRIL 1928 








[f under' masterteachers^^*^ 


A RE you satisfied with your out¬ 
look in the profession — don’t 
you feel that you could estab¬ 
lish yourself in a position of greater 
responsibility and incidentally enjoy 
a better financial future if you spent 
a little time on brushing up your own 

An ounce of proof is worth a pound 
of promise. Making claims is easy— 
‘‘making good” is the real test of 
merit. Many readers of The Etude 
— teachers and students, have been 
greatly benefited by our courses— 
others have seen our announcement in 
as yet have 

Sherwood Piano Lessons 
for Students 

Contain complete, explicit instruction on every phase of piano playing. 
No stone has been left unturned to make this absolutely perfect. It would 
surprise you to know that Sherwood devoted to each lesson enough time to 
earn at least $100.00 in teaching. It is possible for you to get all this 
time and energy for almost nothing, compared to what it cost. The lessons 
are illustrated with life-like photographs of Sherwood at the piano. They 
are given with weekly examination papers. 

Sherwood Normal Lessons 
for Piano Teachers 

exercises for developing, strengthening and training the muscles of the 
fingers, hands, wrists, arms and body, fully explained, illustrated and made 
clear by photographs, diagrams and drawings. 


A knowledge of Harmony is necessary for every student and 
teacher. You can study the Harmony Course prepared especially 
for us by Adolph Rosenbecker, former Soloist and Conductor, pupil 
of Richter, and Dr. Daniel Protheroe, Eminent Composer, Choral Con¬ 
ductor and Teacher. You need Harmony and this is your chance to 
study the subject thoroughly. 

Harmony Teaches You to 

2. Transpose at sight 
accompaniments whicl 
called upon to play. 

4. Detect Wrong Notes and faulty 
progressions in printed music or 
during the performance of a com¬ 

5. Memorize Rapidly, one of the 
very greatest benefits derived from 
the study of Harmony. 

6. Substitute other notes when for 
any reason the ones written are 
inconvenient to play. 


Mark an X Before Course That Interests You 


Remember, we will send you 6 free lessons from anv one of the Courses 
named below. Just put an X in front of the Course that most interests you 
and let us tell you what we have done for others — what we can do for you. 


Langley Avenue and 41st Street, Chicago, Illinois 

Please send me catalog, six free lessons and full information regarding 
course I have marked with an X below. 

□Piano, Course for Students 
□Piano, Normal Training 
Course for Teachers 
□Comet, Amateur 
□Comet, Professional 

□Violin □Voice 

□Mandolin nPublic School Music 

□Guitar HHarmony 

□Banjo, 5-String □Choral Conducting 


- Age— 

Street No. _ 

n THE ETUDE whei 

Junior Etude Competition 

The Junior Etude will award three 
pretty prizes each month for the best and 
neatest original stories and essays 
swers to puzzles. mnn th- 

Subject for story or essay th„ month 
‘‘Is Music a Part of My Home Life. 
Must contain not over one hundred and 
fifty words. Any girl or boy under fifteen 
may compete. 

All contributions must bear name, age 
and address of sender (written plainly 
and not on a separate piece of paper) and 
be received at the Junior Etude office, 
1712 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa- 
before the tenth of April. Names of prize 
winners and their contributions will be 
published in the issue for Jui.e. 

Put your name and age on the upper 
left-hand corner of the paper, and your ad¬ 
dress on the upper right-hand corner of 
the paper. If your contribution takes 
more than one piece of paper do this on 
each piece. . . , 

Competitors must comply with all ot 
the above conditions. Do not use type¬ 


One time wheVwe were "practicing far a 
recital our orchestra was to play the first 
number, and I was to play a violin solo. 
After our last rehearsal we decided to leave 
our music on our racks, ready for our per¬ 
formance that evening. I returned^ to th. 

thing was ready and to take a glance at 
my music when, to my great surprise. I found 
it was missing! We searched all over, hut it 
was not to he found. Just imagine my feel¬ 
ings ! Although I had never even tried to 
play without my notes before, I decided I 
would do so, and got through splendidly. So 

t a "few""t 

‘ute,s slow and fast scale 
I played that evening I 
mistake and put my whole 

send complete address, 


gram for a piano S solo OU IUnSs'k I ept m me t from 
Ig rny selection, but as the programs 
l was given special 

were already' __ 

permission to use my _ 

niy music was before me and I was ready ti 
play, when suddenly the lights went out anc 
left the audience in total darkness—I coni, 
hear the audience gasp, while somewhere ii 
the hall a baby began to cry. Spurred or 
! > ! J , l L deslre to entertain the people until th. 
m>ce tint 6 W, 1 8tartPrt to P’ay anotbn 
hefn?e th ft feai ld ™ eni " r, »cd several weeks 

slough ffitS. pjh«u» 

< my s 

■ing the 
”-hts cat 

?ys; * 

1 just 

Rita — rituRIJ. 
ale — SCale. 

Honorable Mention for Composition 

Edith Hanson, Florence Greene. Belva Nell 
Rummager. Juanita Darnell. |( u t|, sift, 
Alice Iloxler Bernice Singer, Julian L. Eddy 
Melvin W. Klpkorn. tier rude Calkins, Mu 
garet Hastings, Frances Hunihan, Grae . n ® 
ington, Mary Elizabeth Doherty. 
Baldwin, Helen Foote, Harry Dean 13 
Hill, Marian Tipton, Eva Lut. c'atiS! 
Breyen, Flora McArdlc. Mary A. Stack X 
Rothroek, Marian Gallagher. Marian CiutfS 1 
Virginia Kelley, Alvina I.ends, Itiehard i? 
Voeffl.’r K Hann'h >I1 KoVh r, ' l \ l urlett rny ’ Marear ” f 
tu'lie Ly’ng, Calda Waite, i .'niVi 
Donaldson, Jr., Mari 

rny, Margaret 

Honorable Mention for Puzzles 

Agnes BuriiN. John Burt Clark, Alm» 

Hoik, Sarah Wellard Mill.. Mary MargZ 

Rupp, Natalie Tyng, All.-. siniii. »•■«, <>~-T 
Marian Mansheim, I)„ra i 

. llel. 

rrell, .1 

Letter Bo: 

.1 ...lilt to 'm., 

e- M pearl i|.vll;i 

■ I. .. l*. Will... 


(Prize Winner) 

This story I am about to relate is a trm 
one that happened to me. This experlenct 
was a public'piano recital. Of course It win 

nevertheless, it was my recital. T had 
planned this for several months, and for the 
two months I practiced live or six hours 
regularly, and three or four hours the last 
two months. The day came at last on which 

... «. I •laeKSlom*. A .I. 

Karp. Mildred! Co, hint, - - 

Evelyn Kiie.lnirg. thtiii, burg, dull 

Tioel,. El. .r.i...- K i 

-l: | .. , -r II...I,. . Lilli... ' ’ nice M.-liee 

Molly Martin. Maty Burke. Anita Warner.] 

Ear Training 

Akf. your ears as goouaryour eyes' 
music? So many music students learn 
play a piece or an ex. -vise or study, 
practice very hard to make a “showin 
but do you think they have 
idea of what they are doing, or trying! 
do? DO YOU? 

Can you recognize all the different kin 
of chords and scales and intervals wfj 
you hear them? (That is, without see* 
them written down. r without finds 
them on the key-hoard, i 
. Can you tell the difference between 
second and a seventh when you hear ' 

Or between a fourth and a fifth? 
catches lots of people whose ears are 
trained. Can you tell major and mine 
scales apart when you hear them? It 
certainly to be hoped that you can do this 
much, at least. Can you recognize melodii 
and harmonic and natural minor scales 
Major and minor chords do not sound a 
all alike; but do you know which i 


By Annie Walker Humphrey 

The first letters of the words 
puzzle represent the initials .of 
mous musician or composer. 

1. Was a master. 

2. Famous, much-beloved. 

3. Intensely patriotic. 

4- Just, serene, blind. 

5- Loud, violent behavior. 

6. Glorious, famous halleiujahs 

7. Exceedingly gifted. 

8. Romanticist and song-writer 

9. Pessimistic in temperament. 

0. Famed, French-Polish Composer. 
11. Composer, French genius. 

2. Famous, prolific song writer. 

3. Favorite, justly honored. 

14. A great Russian. 

15. Famous virtuoso, leari.»d 

Georg Friedrich Handel 

*>*m at Halle. ,6S S Died at London, 

Master of the Oratorio. Gifted 
the Violin. Harpsichord and the Or**”; 
Messiah. The Judas Maccabeus, Samson, 

olin. Harpsichord and tl 
n. The Judas Maccabci 

Property of 


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with clear cold water, and is easy to apply. If you desire Alabastine results, buy genuine 
Alabastine, in the package as shown above with the cross and circle in red. 

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